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Table 4 Comparison of baseline characteristics of the TRAIL cohort, between those still alive and those who died of asthma-related causes

From: Long-term predictors of severe exacerbations and mortality in a cohort of well-characterised adults with asthma

  Alive (n = 978) Dead (n = 93) p-value
Sex, n women (%) 599 (61) 50 (54) 0.18
Age, yrs 36 (15) 56 (12)  < 0.001
Decade of inclusion    
 1974–1979 144 (15) 20 (22) 0.093
 1980–1989 731 (75) 68 (73)
 1990 103 (10) 5 (5)
Years since symptom debut 4 (2–13) 10 (3–25)  < 0.001
Ever smokera, n (%) 331 (33.8) 48 (52)  < 0.001
Pack-yearsb 7.7 (3.5–14) 15 (7.5–22.3)  < 0.001
History of asthma exacerbation, n (%) 159 (16) 14 (15) 0.883
Daily symptoms, n (%) 340 (35) 58 (62)  < 0.001
Daily β2-agonist usage 2 (2–4) 4 (3–6)  < 0.001
ICS dosage at baseline 200 (0–400) 400 (0–600) 0.082
Lung function    
 FEV1% pred 85 (17.6) 62 (21.5) 0.006
 FVC % pred 94 (15) 80 (19)  < 0.001
 FEV1/FVC ratio 75 (11) 61 (13) 0.024
 BD Reversibility, % 18 (16–26) 28 (16–43)  < 0.001
 AHR 2.35 (1.60–4.36) 2.00 (1.10–3.98) 0.280
 Peak flow variability, % 22 (15–29) 23 (13–26) 0.725
Blood Eosinophils, × 109/l 0.34 (0.21–0.57) 0.42 (0.21–0.57) 0.521
Total IgE, IU/l 125 (41–342) 105 (36–316) 0.317
Negative skin prick test, n (%) 403 (41) 66 (71)  < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean (standard deviation) or median interquartile range), unless otherwise stated
  2. AHR airway hyperresponsiveness, BD bronchodilator, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 Second, FVC forced vital capacity, ICS inhaled corticosteroids, IU International Units
  3. aCurrent or ex-smokers
  4. bFor ever smokers