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Table 1 Comparison of baseline characteristics of the TRAIL cohort, between those who experience 0, 1–2 and 3 + exacerbations

From: Long-term predictors of severe exacerbations and mortality in a cohort of well-characterised adults with asthma

  0 (n = 849) 1–2 (n = 182) 3 + (n = 40) p-value
Sex, n women (%) 506 (60) 114 (63) 29 (73) 0.228
Age 35 (14) 50 (15) 54 (13)  < 0.001
Decade of inclusion     
 1974–1979 115 (14) 40 (22) 9 (23) 0.013
 1980–1989 641 (76) 131 (72) 27 (68)
 1990 93 (11) 11 (6) 4 (10)
Adultonseta, n (%) 587 (69) 147 (81) 33 (83) 0.002
Ever smokerb, n (%) 283 (33) 74 (41) 22 (55) 0.006
Pack-yearsc 9.7 (8.7) 15 (9.5) 16 (15)  < 0.001
Previous severe exacerbation, n (%) 136 (16) 18 (10) 6 (15) 0.100
Daily symptoms, n (%) 271 (32) 98 (54) 29 (73)  < 0.001
Daily use of β2-agonist (> 2 puffs), n (%) 399 (47) 120 (66) 32 (80)  < 0.001
High dose ICS or any dose OCS, n (%) 184 (22) 46 (25) 14 (35) 0.096
Lung function     
 FEV1% pred 86 (17) 74 (21) 61 (22)  < 0.001
 FVC % pred 94 (15) 87 (17) 78 (16)  < 0.001
 FEV1/FVC ratio 78 (71–82) 70 (58–77) 58 (54–73)  < 0.001
 BD reversibility, n (%)     
  < 12% 130 (16) 25 (15) 2 (5) 0.221
  ≥ 12% 688 (84) 145 (85) 35 (95)
 AHRd 2.4
(1.7–4.5)
2.1
(1.3–4.6)
2.1
(1.00–3.1)
0.072
 Peak flow variability, % 22 (15–29) 22 (13–26) 21 (12–25) 0.200
Blood eosinophils 0.34
(0.21–0.57)
0.38
(0.21–0.57)
0.45
(0.23–0.54)
0.534
Total IgE, IU/l 129
(43–345)
93
(35–317)
125
(33–279)
0.165
Negative skin prick test, n (%) 326 (38) 114 (63) 29 (73)  < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean (standard deviation) or median interquartile range), unless otherwise stated
  2. AHR airway hyperresponsiveness, BD bronchodilator, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 second, FVC forced vital capacity, ICS inhaled corticosteroids, IU International Unit, OCS oral corticosteroids
  3. aAge ≥ 18 years
  4. bCurrent or ex-smokers
  5. cFor ever smokers
  6. dMissing data on 266