Skip to main content

Table 1 Spirometry, impulse oscillometry and exhaled nitric oxide results

From: Small airway function in Finnish COVID-19 survivors

  Pre-bronchodilator Post-bronchodilator Change
Abs Z Abs Z %
Spirometry
 FVC, l
  Mean ± SD 4.53 ± 0.96 − 0.18 ± 0.88 4.45 ± 1.01 − 0.30 ± 0.96 − 1.8 ± 2.3
  Median (IQR) 4.47 (3.99–4.88) − 0.10 (− 0.87–0.24) 4.28 (3.87–5.02) − 0.13 (− 1.09–0.28) − 2.4 (− 3.5–0.0)
  Range 2.45–6.46 − 1.28–1.65 2.39–6.54 − 1.67–1.78 − 5.3–2.9
 FEV1, l
  Mean ± SD 3.59 ± 0.71 0.09 ± 0.91 3.65 ± 0.74 0.21 ± 0.94 1.7 ± 1.9
  Median (IQR) 3.55 (3.23–3.99) 0.23 (− 0.59–0.73) 3.63 (3.21–4.15) 0.31 (− 0.44–0.92) 2.2 (− 0.3–3.3)
  Range 1.96–5.28 − 1.66–2.15 1.97–5.37 − 1.62–2.31 − 2.5–4.7
 FEV1/FVC, %
  Mean ± SD 79.57 ± 4.24 0.57 ± 0.99 82.45 ± 4.89 1.11 ± 1.06 3.6 ± 2.1
  Median (IQR) 81.55 (75.78–82.72) 0.89 (− 0.43–1.39) 82.34 (79.25–85.97) 0.91 (− 0.07–2.15) 3.2 (2.1–5.8)
  Range 68.88–84.62 − 0.93–1.75 71.10–90.53 − 0.52–2.62 − 0.1–7.0
 MMEF, l·s−1
  Mean ± SD 3.49 ± 0.95 0.49 ± 1.13 3.95 ± 1.03 1.02 ± 1.23 13.6 ± 6.6
  Median (IQR) 3.49 (2.68–4.09) 0.59 (− 0.41–1.06) 3.99 (3.04–4.77) 0.94 (− 0.07–1.79) 13.4 (9.3–16.0)
  Range 1.87–5.57 − 1.48–2.81 2.07–6.06 − 0.95–3.32 − 0.9–26.7
 MEF50, l·s−1
  Mean ± SD 4.23 ± 1.10 0.44 ± 1.04 4.83 ± 1.07 0.99 ± 0.97 15.9 ± 14.3
  Median (IQR) 4.02 (3.46–4.91) 0.61 (− 0.21–1.00) 4.78 (3.98–5.63) 1.25 (0.37–1.42) 13.2 (7.5–19.0)
  Range 2.21–6.54 − 1.28–2.45 2.78–7.03 − 0.76–2.86 − 10.4–49.9
IOS
 R5, kPa·l−1·s
  Mean ± SD 0.30 ± 0.09 − 0.06 ± 1.00 0.27 ± 0.07 − 0.60 ± 1.58 − 7 ± 12
  Median (IQR) 0.28 (0.24–0.39) − 0.01 (− 0.51–0.38) 0.27 (0.23–0.32) − 0.29 (− 0.95–0.04) − 8 (− 15–3)
  Range 0.13–0.45 − 1.89–2.49 0.12–0.39 − 5.78–1.98 − 23–18
 R5-20, kPa·l−1·s
  Mean ± SD 0.03 ± 0.03 − 0.98 ± 0.98 0.03 ± 0.02 − 1.04 ± 1.55 13 ± 73
  Median (IQR) 0.04 (0.01–0.05) − 0.79 (− 1.55 to − 0.45) 0.02 (0.01–0.06) − 0.86 (− 1.73 to − 0.42) − 10 (− 42–60)
  Range − 0.02–0.09 − 2.94–1.11 − 0.02–0.06 − 4.41–3.58 − 95–179
 X5, kPa·l−1·s
  Mean ± SD − 0.08 ± 0.03 1.07 ± 1.39 − 0.07 ± 0.03 1.69 ± 2.00 − 16 ± 21
  Median (IQR) − 0.08 (− 0.09 to − 0.06) 0.76 (0.05–1.81) − 0.07 (− 0.08 to − 0.05) 1.08 (0.54–2.19) − 16 (− 31–1)
  Range − 0.14 to − 0.03 − 0.74–5.05 − 0.13 to − 0.01 − 0.99–7.10 − 59–21
 AX, kPa·L−1
  Mean ± SD 0.27 ± 0.19 − 0.32 ± 0.66 0.19 ± 0.13 − 0.10 ± 1.52 − 22 ± 30
  Median (IQR) 0.29 (0.10–0.41) − 0.18 (− 0.60–0.11) 0.18 (0.08–0.29) − 0.37 (− 0.63 to − 0.19) − 26 (− 46 to − 6)
  Range 0.04–0.72 − 2.46–0.67 0.01–0.46 − 1.22–6.13 − 75–53
Exhaled NO
 FENO, ppb
  Mean ± SD 21.7 ± 6.9 N/A N/A N/A N/A
  Median (IQR) 21.8 (17.0–28.2) N/A N/A N/A N/A
  Range 9.1–31.2 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 NOalv, ppb
  Mean ± SD 1.4 ± 1.0 − 1.19 ± 0.58 N/A N/A N/A
  Median (IQR) 1.4 (0.6–1.7) − 1.20 (− 1.69 to − 1.02) N/A N/A N/A
  Range 0.2–3.9 − 1.93–0.30 N/A N/A N/A
  1. FVC forced vital capacity, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV1/FVC forced expiratory ratio, MMEF maximal mid-expiratory flow, MEF50 maximal flow at 50% of FVC, IOS impulse oscillometry, R5 resistance at 5 Hz, R5-20 differential change in airway resistance between 5 and 20 Hz, X5 reactance at 5 Hz, AX area of reactance, NO nitric oxide, FENO fractional concentration of NO with flow 50 ml/s, NOalv alveolar NO concentration