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Table 1 Members of SPMs family and their roles in inflammation resolution

From: Role of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators in pulmonary inflammation diseases: mechanisms and development

Mediator Receptors Functions Refs.
Alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3)     
  Lipoxin A4 FPR2/ALX Regulate leukocytes, PMNs, eosinophils, and monocytes [177]
   Promote but inhibit apoptosis process [178]
Increase IL-10 production, and inhibit IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 expression [39, 179]
Inhibit the activation of the NF-kB pathway [179]
   Regulate tight-junction formation in airway epithelial cells [180]
Lipoxin B4 GPCRs Accelerate the regulation of allergic lung inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness [181]
   Inhibit the recruitment and transmigration of PMNs [48, 182]
  Aspirin-triggered LX (ATL) ALX/FPR Inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis across the endothelium and epithelium [37, 183]
   Enhance clearance and accelerate resolution of pulmonary edema [2, 184]
Reduce Cox2 traffic in pain responses [2]
Alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3)     
EPA RvE1 ERV1/ChemR23; BLT4 [185] Mediate cell-migration and activation of the monocyte–macrophage system [81, 185]
    Limit neutrophil infiltration, and promote macrophage phagocytosis [186]
Enhance phagocytosis and production of anti-inflammatory cytokines [60, 61]
RvE2 BLT1 Increase macrophage phagocytosis and efferocytosis [45, 187]
Regulate morphological changes as well as the chemotaxis and migration of PMNs [45]
DHA RvD1 DRV1/GPR32 Prevent T-cell differentiation towards Th1 and Th17 lineages [188]
    Promote inflammation and enhance macrophage clearance [45, 189]
RvD2 DRV2/GPR18 Modulate expression of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes–macrophages [48]
   Stimulate phagocytosis and apoptosis [190]
PD1 GPCRs Inhibit neutrophil aggregation [50, 51]
Regulate the secretion of chemokines and cytokines [50, 51]
   Transformation of mononuclear cells, macrophages, neutrophils and platelets [182]
Maresin GPCRs Inhibiting neutrophil migration [13, 52, 53]
   Enhance recruitment of monocytes and macrophages and efferocytosis [13]
   Inhibit IL-13 production and induce formation of regulatory T cells [46]
    Induce polarization of M1 macrophages to M2 macrophages [52]