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Table 1 Study population demographics

From: Up-regulation of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, in asthmatics on maintenance inhaled corticosteroids

Parameters Controls Asthmatics p value
All ICS‾ ICS+ All asthmatics vs controls Asthmatics ICS vs ICS+
N 29 57 38 19   
Sex (male/female) 11/18 30/27 25/13 5/14  > 0.1  < 0.005
Age 38 ± 11 33 ± 11 31 ± 10 36 ± 11  < 0.04  > 0.08
Ethnicity (AA/E/H/O)1 13/8/4/4 31/10/13/3 24/5/6/3 7/5/7/0  > 0.5  > 0.2
BMI (kg/m2) 26 ± 4 27 ± 4 27 ± 5 27 ± 4  > 0.09  > 0.9
IgE (IU/mL) 38 ± 37 471 ± 674 509 ± 774 394 ± 417  < 0.002  > 0.5
Eosinophils
(absolute, × 103/uL)
0.1 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.2  < 10–4  > 0.9
Lung function2       
 FVC (% predicted) 112 ± 12 102 ± 14 103 ± 13 101 ± 18  < 0.002  > 0.7
 FEV1 (% predicted) 109 ± 11 87 ± 13 88 ± 13 84 ± 13  < 10–11  > 0.3
 FEV1 response to ronchodilators (% change) 8 ± 2 11 ± 8 11 ± 8 12 ± 10  < 0.006  > 0.5
 FEV1/FVC
(% observed)
81 ± 4 71 ± 9 72 ± 8 70 ± 9  < 10–6  > 0.4
 TLC (% predicted) 102 ± 16 103 ± 15 103 ± 15 103 ± 16  > 0.7  > 0.8
 DLCO (% predicted) 90 ± 8 89 ± 11 89 ± 12 88 ± 10  > 0.6  > 0.5
Asthma severity
(mild/mod/sev)3
N/A 29/23/5 25/10/3 4/13/2 N/A  < 0.02
LAE asthma-related genes4       
 CLCA1 2 ± 11 27 ± 59 26 ± 45 30 ± 82  < 10–6 (12.0)  > 0.1
 SERPINB2 5 ± 5 30 ± 36 32 ± 34 27 ± 41  < 10–6 (3.9)  > 0.3
 POSTN 16 ± 15 63 ± 66 74 ± 73 40 ± 41  < 10–5 (3.2)  < 0.03 (2.0)
  1. Data is presented as mean ± standard deviation; p value calculated using a Student’s t-test for numerical parameters or a chi-square test for categorical parameters; all subjects were HIV negative, nonsmokers, and had normal levels of α1-antitrypsin (see Inclusion/Exclusion criteria in Additional file 1 for details); controls = healthy nonsmoker controls, ICS = nonsmoker asthmatics not treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), ICS+  = nonsmoker asthmatics treated with maintenance ICS
  2. 1AA African-American; E European; H Hispanic; O Other
  3. 2Lung function parameters are presented as pre-bronchodilator values and as percent predicted except the FEV1/FVC ratio, which is presented as % observed; FEV1 response to bronchodilators was calculated based on FEV1 post vs pre-bronchodilators (% change); FVC forced vital capacity; FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s; TLC total lung capacity; DLCO diffusion capacity, DLCO was corrected for hemoglobin and carboxyhemoglobin [35]
  4. 3Mod moderate, sev severe, N/A  not applicable
  5. 4Large airway epithelium (LAE) gene expression was assessed by microarray (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0) for genes expressed in ≥ 20% of the subjects in either compared group; additional LAE asthma-related genes [24]; IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 were expressed in < 20% of the subjects, therefore were not compared between the groups; all asthmatics vs controls were compared using 2-way ANCOVA (age was a co-variant), significant genes were up-regulated in asthmatics vs controls; asthmatics ICS vs ICS+ were compared using 2-way ANCOVA (sex was a co-variant), significant genes were up-regulated in ICS vs ICS+; the fold-change is detailed in brackets for genes with a significant p value (p value < 0.05 was considered significant)