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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of AECOPD inpatients in the training set and validation set

From: A risk-predictive model for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  No. (%)*  
Characteristic Training set
(n = 616)
Validation set
(n = 264)
P
IPA 59 (9.6) 24 (9.1) 0.821
Age, years    
 Mean ± SD 75 ± 10.8 75 ± 10.6 0.936
Gender male 525 (85.2) 222 (84.1) 0.666
Smoking index > 400 113 (18.3) 59 (22.3) 0.170
Comorbidities    
 Previous tuberculosis 37 (6) 21 (8) 0.286
 Lung cancer 25 (4.1) 17 (6.4) 0.129
 Bronchiectasis 8 (1.3) 7(2.7) 0.163
 Asthma 18 (2.9) 14 (5.3) 0.084
 Lobectomy surgery 13 (2.1) 10 (3.8) 0.153
 Other solid tumor 23 (3.7) 13 (4.9) 0.414
 Hypertension 297 (48.2) 123 (46.6) 0.659
 Diabetes mellitus 94 (15.3) 43 (16.3) 0.700
 Congestive heart failure 119 (19.3) 72 (27.3) 0.009
 Chronic and acute kidney disease 44 (7.1) 15 (5.7) 0.427
 Advanced liver disease 8 (1.3) 1 (0.4) 0.292
 Connective tissue disease 13 (2.1) 7 (2.7) 0.622
Laboratory results    
 Serum albumin < 30 g/L 151 (24.5) 70 (26.5) 0.530
 GOLD III–IV§ 409 (66.4) 177 (67) 0.852
 Respiratory failure 129 (20.9) 74 (28) 0.022
Co-infection    
 Lung bacterial infection 100 (16.2) 54 (20.5) 0.131
 Pulmonary tuberculosis 12 (19.5) 4 (1.6) 0.788
Previous treatment    
 Inhale corticosteroids 124 (20.1) 47 (17.8) 0.424
 Oral or intravenous corticosteroids 59 (9.6) 36 (13.6) 0.075
 Cytotoxic drug utility 2 (0.3) 4 (1.5) 0.070
 Broad-spectrum antibiotic > 10 days 45 (7.3) 28 (10.6) 0.104
 Invasive ventilator utility 49 (8) 28 (10.6) 0.202
 ICU admission 1 month prior 54 (8.8) 39 (14.8) 0.008
Hospital acute exacerbation ≥ 2/year 111 (18) 51 (19.3) 0.649
  1. IPA invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, GOLD global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease, ICU intensive care unit
  2. *Values are presented as numbers and percentages, unless otherwise indicated
  3. This result was obtained from the hospital admission
  4. §The GOLD stage was obtained from the latest pulmonary function test within the last year