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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of all included subjects

From: Heparin-binding protein in lower airway samples as a biomarker for pneumonia

Variable Study group
BALF “Pneumonia 2016” BALF control BW “Pneumonia 2017” BW control
Number of subjects 14 14 10 10
Males 8 (57.1) 7 (50.0) 8 (80.0) 4 (40.0)
Age (years) 74 (60.8–82.0) 23.5 (22–24) 66 (58.5–68.8) 55 (39–59)
Current smoker 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (20.0) 0 (0.0)
COPD 4 (28.6) 0 (0.0) 3 (30.0) 0 (0.0)
Other pulmonary diseases 1 (7.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Diabetes mellitus 4 (28.6) 0 (0.0) 1 (10.0) 1 (10.0)
Cardiovascular disease 5 (35.7) 0 (0.0) 3 (30.0) 2 (20.0)
Non-pulmonary malignancy 5 (35.7) 0 (0.0) 2 (20.0) 0 (0.0)
Radiographic lung infiltrate 11 (78.6) NA 6 (60.0) 0 (0.0)
Purulent sputum 8 (57.1) 0 (0.0) 3 (30.0) 0 (0.0)
Temp > 38 °C within the last 24 h 12 (85.7) 0 (0.0) 6 (60.0) 0 (0.0)
Days with ventilator 5 (4.0–6.0) NA 2.5 (1.8–6.5) 0.5 (0–1.0)
Arterial oxygen saturation (%) 93.5 (92.0–94.0) 98 (98.0–99.0) 95.5 (93.3–98.0) 97 (96–98)
Plasma CRP (mg/l) 69.5 (23.5–142.8) NA 89.5 (53.3–188.0) 3.1 (1.3–10.9)
Blood leukocytes (10^9 cells/l) 10.6 (9.0–15.0) 6.4 (5.4–7.8) 10.3 (7.4–16.7) 6.9 (5.7–8.7)
Blood neutrophils (10^9 cells/l) 9.1 (8.7–13.2) 3.5 (2.7–4.0) 5.7 (5.6–9.9) 3.4 (3.3–5.8)
Gram-positive PPM 5 (35.7) NA 3 (30.0) 0 (0.0)
Gram-negative PPM 7 (50.0) NA 6 (60.0) 0 (0.0)
Viral PMM 1 (7.1) NA 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Fungal PMM 1 (7.1) NA 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Antibiotic treatment 14 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 10 (100.0) 6 (60.0)
Systemic steroid treatment (= > 10 mg prednisolon) 3 (21.4) 0 (0.0) 2 (20.0) 0 (0.0)
Inhalation steroid treatment 3 (21.4) 0 (0.0) 6 (60.0) 0 (0.0)
Other immunosuppression 1 (7.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (10.0) 0 (0.0)
  1. Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or n (%), unless otherwise stated. BW bronchial wash, BALF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRP C-reactive protein, PPM potentially pathogenic microorganism;