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Table 2 Predictive factors of overall mortality in the entire population of IPF patients treated with antifibrotics

From: Prognostic role of MUC5B rs35705950 genotype in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) on antifibrotic treatment

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  HR (95% CI) p Value HR (95% CI) p Value
Sex Female
  Male 1.33 (0.51–3.49) 0.55
Age at diagnosis (years)  < 70
   ≥ 70 1.26 (0.61–2.58) 0.52
BMI (kg/m2)  < 26
 ≥ 26 0.85 (0.41–1.73) 0.66
Smoking history (packyears)  < 10
 ≥ 10 1.72 (0.83–3.59) 0.14
Smoking status No
Current 1.91 (0.36–10.01) 0.44
Former 1.93 (0.76–4.88) 0.16
Gastroesophageal reflux No
Yes 0.26 (0.11–0.64) 0.003 0.11 (0.09–1.6) 0.1
Cardiovascular diseases No
Yes 1.57 (0.69–3.56) 0.27
Metabolic syndrome No
Yes 0.90 (0.42–1.92) 0.79
Treatment type Nintedanib  
Pirfenidone 2.27 (0.78–6.60) 0.13
MUC5B rs35705950 TT/TG
GG 2.39 (1.12–5.06) 0.02 1.75 (0.09–31.8) 0.7
Respiratory failure at rest (months)  ≥ 26
 < 26 9.44 (4.10–21.77)  < 0.0001 36.7 (2.83–47.7) 0.006
Respiratory failure on effort (months)  ≥ 19
 < 19 4.54 (2.06–10.00)  < 0.0001 4.96 (0.45–53.8) 0.18
Nausea and vomiting during treatment No
Yes 0.64 (0.24–1.68) 0.37
Weight loss during treatment (Kg) No
Yes 0.96 (0.39–2.34) 0.93
Diarrhea during treatment No
yes 0.17 (0.04–0.74) 0.02 0.45 (0.04–4.73) 0.5
Increase in AST and ALT No
  Yes 6.42 (0.78–52.41) 0.08
FVC at treatment initiation (L)  ≥ 2.60
 < 2.60 3.03 (1.42–6.48) 0.004 77.2 (2.99–199.0) 0.009
FVC at treatment initiation (%)  ≥ 77
   < 77 1.80 (0.87–3.71) 0.11
TLC at treatment initiation (%)  ≥ 73     
   < 73 1.89 (0.90–3.74) 0.09   
DLCO at treatment initiation (%)  ≥ 56
 < 56 1.30 (0.64–2.65) 0.45
FVC after 1-yr of antifibrotic drug (L)  ≥ 2.56
 < 2.56 2.25 (1.08–4.94) 0.04 0.16 (0.01–2.21) 0.17
FVC decline in 1-yr of antifibrotic drug (ml)  < 50
 ≥ 50) 1.13 (0.52–2.47) 0.74
FVC after 1-yr of antifibrotic drug (%)  ≥ 78
 < 78) 2.61 (1.10–6.19) 0.03 0.68 (0.10–4.23) 0.68
FVC decline in 1-yr of antifibrotic drug (%)  < 1.02
 ≥ 1.02 1.44 (0.67–3.12) 0.34
Disease progression Stables
Progressors 2.12 (0.90–4.98) 0.08
TLC after 1-yr of antifibrotic drug (%)  ≥ 69
 < 69 2.30 (1.04–5.08) 0.04 7.07 (0.95–52.66) 0.56
TLC decline in 1-yr of antifibrotic drug (%)  < 3.02
 ≥ 3.02 1.96 (0.85–4.49) 0.11
DLCO after 1-yr of antifibrotic drug (%)  ≥ 54
 < 54 1.47 (0.67–3.21) 0.33
DLCO decline in 1-yr of antifibrotic drug (%)  < 0
 ≥ 0 1.52 (0.69–3.35) 0.3
  1. FVC forced vital capacity, TLC  total lung capacity, DLCO  lung diffusion carbon oxide, RF  respiratory failure, AST  aspartate aminotransferase; ALT  alanine aminostransferase. Values are expressed as HR (95%CI). Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression tests were used to determine the relationship of clinical, functional and radiological characteristics with progression. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant (bold values)