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Table 2 Severity of illness at RRS activation and interventions by RRS team

From: The association between hospital length of stay before rapid response system activation and clinical outcomes: a retrospective multicenter cohort study

Variables Total Early Late P value
patients deterioration deterioration
(N = 11,612) (N = 5779) (N = 5833)
Mean blood pressure (mmHg) 83 (66–98) 82 (66–97) 83 (66–98) 0.289
Heart rate (rate/min) 102 (84–120) 100 (82–120) 104 (86–122)  < 0.001
Respiratory rate (rate/min) 22 (18–28) 22 (18–28) 22 (18–28) 0.46
Body temperature (°C) 36.9 (36.5–37.6) 36.9 (36.5–37.6) 36.9 (36.5–37.6) 0.36
Alert mental status 7968 (68.6%) 4204 (72.8%) 3764 (64.5%)  < 0.001
Need for supplementary oxygen therapy 6880 (59.3%) 3339 (57.8%) 3541 (60.7%) 0.001
MEWS 4 (2–5) 4 (2–5) 4 (2–6)  < 0.001
NEWS2 7 (5–10) 7 (5–10) 8 (5–10)  < 0.001
SOFA scorea 5 (3–7) 4 (2–7) 5 (3–8)  < 0.001
Intervention of RRS team     
Tracheal intubation 1525 (13.1%) 720 (12.5%) 805 (13.8%) 0.032
Mechanical ventilation 1400 (12.1%) 655 (11.3%) 745 (12.8%) 0.017
High flow nasal cannula 900 (7.8%) 458 (7.9%) 442 (7.6%) 0.484
Noninvasive ventilation 172 (1.5%) 103 (1.8%) 69 (1.2%) 0.008
Renal replacement therapy 499 (4.3%) 241 (4.2%) 258 (4.4%) 0.501
ACLS including CPR 453 (3.9%) 201 (3.5%) 252 (4.3%) 0.019
ECLS 49 (0.4%) 26 (0.5%) 23 (0.4%) 0.644
Central venous catheter 831 (7.2%) 415 (7.2%) 416 (7.1%) 0.918
Antimicrobial therapy 745 (6.4%) 325 (5.6%) 420 (7.2%) 0.001
Vasopressor/inotrope 1443 (12.4%) 705 (12.2%) 738 (12.7%) 0.46
Transfusion 659 (5.7%) 307 (5.3%) 352 (6.0%) 0.093
Discussion regarding 1226 (10.6%) 541 (9.4%) 685 (11.7%)  < 0.001
do-not-resuscitate order
  1. RRS rapid response system, MEWS modified early weaning score, NEWS2 national early warning score 2, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, ACLS advanced cardiac life support, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ECLS extracorporeal life support
  2. aSOFA scores were available in 6,733 (58.0%) patients who had relevant laboratory test results including arterial blood gas analysis
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