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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: The association between hospital length of stay before rapid response system activation and clinical outcomes: a retrospective multicenter cohort study

Variables Total Early Late P value
patients deterioration deterioration
(N = 11,612) (N = 5779) (N = 5833)
Age (year) 68 (57–76) 68 (57–77) 67 (57–76) 0.288
Sex     
 Male 6785 (58.4%) 3265 (56.5%) 3520 (60.4%)  < 0.001
 Female 4827 (41.6%) 2514 (43.5%) 2313 (39.6%)  
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.2 (19.6–25.0) 22.3 (19.8–25.0) 22.2 (19.5–24.9) 0.012
Admission department
 Medical 8160 (70.3%) 4120 (71.3%) 4040 (69.3%) 0.017
 Surgical and obstetrical 3452 (29.7%) 1659 (28.7%) 1793 (30.7%)  
 Surgical operation 2867 (24.7%) 1050 (18.2%) 1817 (31.2%)  < 0.001
 Before RRS activation
 Postoperative daysa (days) 3 (1–7) 1 (0–2) 5 (3–10)  < 0.001
Comorbidity     
 Solid cancer 4646 (40.0%) 2238 (38.7%) 2408 (41.3%) 0.005
 Hematological malignancy 1002 (8.6%) 336 (5.8%) 666 (11.4%)  < 0.001
 Cardiovascular disease 2715 (23.4%) 1323 (22.9%) 1392 (23.9%) 0.216
 Diabetes mellitus 3132 (27.0%) 1520 (26.3%) 1612 (27.6%) 0.105
 Chronic lung disease 1687 (14.5%) 909 (15.7%) 778 (13.3%)  < 0.001
 Hepatobiliary disease 1297 (11.2%) 640 (11.1%) 657 (11.3%) 0.747
 Chronic kidney disease 1251 (10.8%) 590 (10.2%) 661 (11.3%) 0.051
 Cerebrovascular disease 1329 (11.5%) 585 (10.1%) 744 (12.8%)  < 0.001
 Organ transplantation 356 (3.1%) 128 (2.2%) 228 (3.9%)  < 0.001
Hospital LOS before 5 (2–10) 2 (1–3) 10 (7–17)  < 0.001
RRS activation (days)
  1. RRS rapid response system, LOS length of stay
  2. aPostoperative days are summarized for only patients who were admitted and received a surgical operation
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