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Table 1 Subject demographics, lung function, symptom scores, imaging parameters, blood and sputum measurements

From: Phenotypic comparison between smoking and non-smoking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

VariablesHealthyS-COPDNS-COPD (Biomass smoke)NS-COPD (Occupational)aS-COPD Vs. BS-COPDS-COPD Vs. NS-COPD (Occupational)BS-COPD Vs. NS-COPD (Occupational)
 Mean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SD   
N118795934   
Sex (M: F)53%: 47%100%: 0%0%: 100%100%: 0%   
Age (Years)64.4 ± 7.867.2 ± 7.462.4 ± 7.366.7 ± 8.1< 0.0001p = ns0.010
BMI (kg/m2)21.9 ± 3.819.3 ± 3.421.3 ± 4.420.0 ± 3.30.002p = nsp = ns
Spirometry
 FEV1 Pre (% Predicted)99.4 ± 14.743.1 ± 17.839.9 ± 12.441.9 ± 14.4p = nsp = nsp = ns
 FVC Pre (% Predicted)102.1 ± 16.863.6 ± 20.557.9 ± 16.0462.6 ± 19.20.0050.7320.032
 Δ Reversibility FEV1 Absolute (mL)40.0 ± 93160.0 ± 154.0160 ± 130170 ± 190p = nsp = nsp = ns
 Δ Reversibility FEV1%2.2 ± 4.919.0 ± 19.925.6 ± 24.119.3 ± 20.6p = nsp = nsp = ns
 Δ Reversibility FVC Absolute (mL)0.0 ± 190.0237.0 ± 312.0240 ± 230290 ± 300p = nsp = nsp = ns
 Δ Reversibility FVC %0.3 ± 7.415.5 ± 22.623.2 ± 31.518.2 ± 22.2p = nsp = nsp = ns
 FEV1/FVC Post bronchodilator (%)80.5 ± 6.153.1 ± 10.956.4 ± 8.252.8 ± 9.90.045p = ns0.051
 PEF (% Predicted)89.2 ± 16.034.5 ± 15.829.8 ± 11.234.9 ± 24.3p = nsp = nsp = ns
 FEF25–75 Pre % Predicted65.7 ± 24.415.3 ± 7.412.8 ± 6.914.8 ± 7.4p = nsp = nsp = ns
Plethysmography
 TLC Pre (% Predicted)84.2 ± 15.9104.1 ± 23.199.8 ± 32.6103.2 ± 27.3p = nsp = nsp = ns
 RV Pre (% Predicted)98.8 ± 26.4180.8 ± 65.09176.2 ± 72.1174.2 ± 59.6p = nsp = nsp = ns
 IC Pre (% Predicted)75.2 ± 27.349.6 ± 18.749.8 ± 23.743.7 ± 19.3p = nsp = nsp = ns
 RV/TLC Pre (% Predicted)116.8 ± 21.4171.5 ± 29.7170.9 ± 39.4175.7 ± 31.2p = nsp = nsp = ns
 SGaw Pre (% Predicted)159.6 ± 78.036.2 ± 21.024.5 ± 13.626.9 ± 16.30.010p = nsp = ns
IOS
 R5 (kPa s L−1) Pre (% Predicted)148 ± 74.8231.8 ± 96.4287.3 ± 100.1244.2 ± 93.50.005p = nsp = ns
 R20 (kPa s L− 1) Pre (% Predicted)118.0 ± 50.6130.1 ± 44.6158.3 ± 51.2134.6 ± 47.10.012p = nsp = ns
 R5-R20 (kPa s L− 1) Pre0.16 ± 0.10.36 ± 0.20.60 ± 0.30.39 ± 0.2< 0.0001p = ns0.003
 X5 Pre (kPa s L− 1)−0.24 ± 0.2− 0.56 ± 0.3−0.9 ± 0.4−0.7 ± 0.3< 0.0001p = nsp = ns
 Ax Pre (Hz kPa s L− 1)1.96 ± 2.05.59 ± 3.510.3 ± 5.77.1 ± 3.7< 0.0001p = ns0.034
 RF Pre (Hz)22.4 ± 6.933.4 ± 7.537.2 ± 7.438.1 ± 10.00.0220.041p = ns
Gas Diffusion
 DLCo % Predicted76.7 ± 17.354.2 ± 21.954.7 ± 17.370.2 ± 27.0p = nsp = nsp = ns
 DLCO / VA102.5 ± 17.679.9 ± 30.383.5 ± 15.996.2 ± 32.4p = nsp = nsp = ns
HRCT
 Normal (%)4.3%0%2.4%0%   
 Airways Disease Predominant (%)59.6%60.5%95.2%71.4%   
 ILD Predominant (%)34.0%10.5%0%3.6%   
 Emphysema Predominant (%)2.1%28.9%1 (2.4%)25.0%s   
 Emphysema Score19.9 ± 38.9265 ± 34239.6 ± 69.9193.4 ± 313.90.001p = ns0.006
 ↓attenuation on the expiratory CT Score164.3 ± 169.7278.9 ± 237.8479.5 ± 232.7422 ± 329.10.0010.024p = ns
 CAT Score 23.6 ± 7.822.0 ± 6.525.2 ± 8.8p = nsp = nsp = ns
 SGRQ Score 63.5 ± 18.560.2 ± 18.459.7 ± 16.3p = nsp = nsp = ns
 CRP (mg/L)2.3 ± 2.93.6 ± 4.65.2 ± 6.74.3 ± 3.9p = nsp = nsp = ns
 Serum Insulin (μIU/mL)5.5 ± 3.23.7 ± 2.78.8 ± 4.75.3 ± 5.60.008p = nsp = ns
 Hemoglobin (mg/dL)12.8 ± 1.213.6 ± 2.311.9 ± 1.913.0 ± 2.0< 0.0001p = nsp = ns
 Red cell count (106 cells/μL)4.3 ± 0.54.6 ± 0.64.3 ± 0.44.6 ± 0.50.007p = nsp = ns
 Packed cell volume (%)39.6 ± 5.241.8 ± 6.436.7 ± 5.340.1 ± 5.8< 0.0001p = ns0.051
 Mean corpuscular volume (fL)92.4 ± 11.291.4 ± 10.884.7 ± 10.888.2 ± 9.80.004p = nsp = ns
 Blood eosinophils (%)4.6 ± 3.94.7 ± 4.75.3 ± 4.74.6 ± 4.43p = nsp = nsp = ns
 Blood eosinophils (cells/μL)330.4 ± 319343.5 ± 408410.03 ± 403.73337.5 ± 330.09p = nsp = nsp = ns
Sputum
 Total cell count per ml1.38 (0.9 2.9)6.19 (3.2, 9.3)4.51 (2.5, 6.9)3.6 (2.4, 7.4)p = nsp = nsp = ns
 Macrophages per ml0.33 (0.2, 0.6)0.87 (0.4, 1.2)0.72 (0.4, 1.3)0.60 (0.3, 0.9)p = nsp = nsp = ns
 Neutrophils per ml0.87 (0.5, 2.8)5.22 (2.6, 8.3)2.63 (1.7, 5.9)2.60 (1.2, 6.7)p = nsp = nsp = ns
 Eosinophils per ml0.006 (0.0, 0.02)0.139 (0.04, 0.3)0.25 (0.04, 0.4)0.21 (0.1, 0.6)p = nsp = nsp = ns
 Lymphocytes per ml0.014 (0.0, 0.03)0.032 (0.02, 0.08)0.03 (0.01, 0.07)0.03 (0.01, 0.05)p = nsp = nsp = ns
  1. aOut of the 34 occupational COPD, 25 were farmers, 4 were farmers + hard rock mining/sandblasting exposure and 5 had occupational dust exposures for at least 20 years
  2. FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC Forced vital capacity, FEF25–75 Forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC, PEF Peak expiratory flow, BD Bronchodilator, p-y Pack-years, h-y hour-years, sRaw specific airway resistance, sGaw specific airway conductance, TLC Total lung capacity, RV Residual volumeM, IOS Impulse oscillometry, R5 Resistance at 5 Hz, X5 Reactance at 5 Hz, AX Area under the reactance curve, Fres Resonant frequency, DLCO Diffusing lung co-efficient for carbon monoxide, KCO Transfer coefficient, SGRQ St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, CAT COPD assessment test, hsCRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein
  3. Data are presented as means ± SD