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Table 5 Association between self-reported use of asthma medication and respiratory symptoms, adjusted for age, smoking status and sex

From: Change in the symptom profile treated as asthma – two cross-sectional studies twenty years apart

Independent variablesDependent variables (RR, 95% CI)
Asthma medication use 1993/94Asthma medication use 2014/15
Breathlessness while wheezing6.29 (1.67–23.70)**9.35 (2.19–40.03)**
Wheeze without cold3.18 (0.97–10.36)3.66 (1.01–13.26)*
Waking with chest tightness5.97 (1.56–22.90)**0.28 (0.11–0.69)**
Woken by attack of breathlessness1.13 (0.40–3.18)3.57 (1.33–9.56)*
Woken by attack of cough0.49 (0.19–1.26)2.29 (1.24–4.23)**
Nasal allergies2.65 (1.05–6.69)*3.86 (1.40–10.68)**
Age0.95 (0.89–1.02)0.94 (0.90–0.98)**
Smoking history0.67 (0.40–1-13)0.52 (0.37–0.74)***
  1. All independent variables were added into the models all at once. Relative risk (RR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001