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Table 2 Effects of the combination of low HB and COPD on cognitive and motor outcomes; standardized effect sizes and 95%CI

From: Impact of COPD and anemia on motor and cognitive performance in the general older population: results from the English longitudinal study of ageing

COPD category+low HBTime to complete chaira riseNumber of Words memorized a
M1bM2cM1aM2c
NO COPD
N = 7305d
NO N = 6770d1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
YES = 535d0.14 (0.06 to 0.22)0.09 (0.02 to 0.17)−0.14 (− 0.22 to − 0.06)-0.1 (− 0.18 to 0.02)
Mild and moderate COPD (category 1 and 2)
N = 841d
NO
N = 735d
0.22 (0.15 to 0.29)0.15 (0.08 to 0.22)− 0.14 (− 0.21 to − 0.07)−0.09 (− 0.17 to 0.01)
YES
N = 106d
0.62 (0.44 to 0.8)0.5 (0.33 to 0.68)−0.1 (− 0.28 to 0.08)−0.01 (− 0.19 to 0.17)
Severe and very severe COPD (category 3 and 4)
N = 205d
NO
N = 185d
0.53 (0.3 to 0.66)0.41 (0.28 to 0.55)−0.16 (− 0.3 to − 0.02)−0.08 (− 0.22 to 0.06)
YES
n = 20d
0.92 (0.53 to 1.3)0.8 (0.42 to 1.18)−0.27 (− 0.66 to 0.12)− 0.17 (− 0.55 to 0.22)
  1. amodeled as the decrease per SD (SD−1) in words memorized and time to complete chair raises
  2. badjustment model 1: sex and age, number of test repetitions; N = 8351 measurements; 5709 persons
  3. cmodel 2 additionally adjusts for blood pressure, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, diabetes, total cholesterol, alcohol, depression grip strength and smoking, imputed from complete data for M1 and available values for M2
  4. dn = measurements