Skip to main content

Table 1 GOLD stage, lung function, medical history, clinical and metabolic parameters of both groups of subjects at baseline and at follow-up

From: Oxidative stress and Nrf2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from COPD patients: an observational longitudinal study

 No-COPD BaselineNo-COPD Follow-upCOPD BaselineCOPD Follow-up
GOLD 0 n. (%)37 (100)30 (82.1)00
GOLD 1 n. (%)07 (18.9)17 (51.5)*12 (36.4)**
GOLD 2 n. (%)0016 (49.5)11 (33.3)**
GOLD 3 n. (%)0008 (24.2)
GOLD 4 n. (%)0002 (6.1)
FEV1 (L)2.9 ± 0.52.9 ± 0.61.7 ± 0.3*1.4 ± 0.7*,**
FEV1 (% of predicted)109.5 ± 18.2111.0 ± 18.371.5 ± 25.1*66.4 ± 26.4**
FEV1/FVC actual (%)76.4 ± 4.373.9 ± 5.955.4 ± 12.1*51.3 ± 13.9*
FEV1/FVC (% of predicted)98.8 ± 8.997.3 ± 9.473.6 ± 16.3*68.9 ± 18.1*
Age (years)68.9 ± 6.672.2 ± 6.870.1 ± 7.773.5 ± 7.9
Sex (M/F)27/1024/9
No-smokers n. (%)21 (56.8)21 (56.8)3 (9.1)*3 (9.1)*
Past-smokers n. (%)11 (29.7)14 (37.8)24 (72.7)*26 (78.8)*
Smokers n. (%)5 (13.5)2 (5.4)**6 (18.2)4 (12.1)*
Hypertension n. (%)25 (67.6)25 (83.3)
Type 2 Diabetes n. (%)4 (10.8)5 (16.6)
Dyslipidemia n. (%)32 (86.5)26 (86.6)
Antihypertensive drug use n. (%)21 (56.7)22 (59.4)23 (76.6)21 (70.0)
Antidiabetic drug use n. (%)1 (2.7)3 (8.1)4 (13.3)5 (16.6)
Statin use n. (%)12 (32.4)11 (29.7)13 (43.3)11 (33.3)
BMI (kg/m2)26.3 ± 3.726.5 ± 3.926.6 ± 3.926.9 ± 4.7
SBP (mmHg)137.8 ± 17.2142.0 ± 15.0133.1 ± 14.9140.4 ± 16.2
DBP (mmHg)84.4 ± 9.882.2 ± 7.782.4 ± 9,183.7 ± 7.5
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.6 ± 1.05.0 ± 1.15.3 ± 1.25.1 ± 1.0
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.6 ± 0.93.2 ± 0.73.1 ± 1.02.9 ± 0.8
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.5 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.51.4 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.5
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.3 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.51.4 ± 0.41.1 ± 0.4
Plasma glucose (mmol/L)5.5 ± 1.35.6 ± 1.75.7 ± 0.65.5 ± 0.9
  1. Note: Continuous variables are expressed as mean ± SD; *p < 0.001 vs no-COPD baseline or follow-up; ** p < 0.01 vs baseline
  2. Legend: GOLD Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in 1st second, FVC forced vital capacity, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure