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Table 1 SARS-CoV-2 entry-related gene expressions in the lower airways and their correlations with baseline parameters in asthmatics

From: Sputum ACE2, TMPRSS2 and FURIN gene expression in severe neutrophilic asthma

  Sputum (n = 104) Bronchial brushing (n = 103) Bronchial biopsy (n = 81)
Parameters ACE2† TMPRSS2† FURIN† ACE2† TMPRSS2† FURIN† ACE2† TMPRSS2† FURIN†
Age (years) 0.009 (− 0.005 to 0.024) − 0.012 (− 0.025 to 0.002) 0.009 (− 0.005 to 0.023) − 0.006 (− 0.018 to 0.007) -0.0005 (− 0.014 to 0.013) 0.002 (− 0.012 to 0.016) 0.003 (− 0.012 to 0.019) 0.012 (− 0.005 to 0.028) 0.088 (− 0.012 to 0.016)
Male (vs. female) 0.320 (− 0.078 to 0.718) 0.194 (− 0.186 to 0.575) − 0.263 (− 0.637 to 0.112) − 0.183 (− 0.537 to 0.170) 0.350 (− 0.018 to 0.719) 0.533 (0.143 to 0.924)** 0.086 (− 0.328 to 0.500) 0.281 (− 0.156 to 0.718) 0.183 (− 0.258 to 0.624)
Ever smoking (vs. never) − 0.077 (− 0.485 to 0.332) 0.233 (− 0.153 to 0.618) 0.104 (− 0.279 to 0.487) 0.252 (− 0.129 to 0.632) 0.191 (− 0.212 to 0.594) 0.225 (− 0.210 to 0.659) 0.482 (0.031 to 0.933)* 0.218 (− 0.274 to 0.710) 0.225 (− 0.210 to 0.659)
BMI (kg/m2) 0.009 (− 0.029 to 0.048) 0.024 (− 0.012 to 0.060) 0.013 (− 0.023 to 0.049) 0.013 (− 0.016 to 0.043) 0.034 (0.003 to 0.064)* − 0.014 (− 0.048 to 0.019) − 0.035 (− 0.070 to 0.00001) 0.004 (− 0.035 to 0.042) − 0.014 (− 0.048 to 0.019)
Sputum eosinophils (%)† 0.0001 (− 0.056 to 0.056) 0.031 (− 0.065 to 0.126) 0.080 (− 0.152 to − 0.008)* − 0.080 (− 0.202 to 0.041), n = 24 − 0.102 (− 0.236 to 0.033), n = 24 0.033 (− 0.153 to 0.219), n = 24 − 0.053 (− 0.235 to 0.130), n = 27 − 0.009 (− 0.216 to 0.197), n = 27 − 0.030 (− 0.206 to 0.146), n = 27
Sputum neutrophils (%)† 0.103 (− 0.061 to 0.267) 0.001 (− 0.263 to 0.264) 0.613 (0.438 to 0.788)*** − 0.248 (− 0.674 to 0.179), n = 24 − 0.029 (− 0.467 to 0.408), n = 24 0.159 (− 0.388 to 0.706), n = 24 0.096 (− 0.592 to 0.784), n = 27 − 0.293 (− 1.098 to 0.512), n = 27 0.040 (− 0.629 to 0.709), n = 27
Blood eosinophils (%)† 0.166 (0.041 to 0.291)* 0.072 (− 0.134 to 0.278) − 0.009 (− 0.176 to 0.157) − 0.057 (− 0.183 to 0.068) 0.015 (− 0.113 to 0.143) 0.121 (− 0.032 to 0.274) − 0.018 (− 0.159 to 0.124) 0.010 (− 0.172 to 0.192) − 0.011 (− 0.184 to 0.163)
Blood neutrophils (%)† 0.300 (0.071 to 0.529)* − 0.307 (− 0.678 to 0.063) 0.389 (0.095 to 0.682)* 0.176 (− 0.027 to 0.380) 0.090 (− 0.120 to 0.300) 0.266 (0.014 to 0.519)* 0.179 (− 0.059 to 0.418) 0.398 (0.099 to 0.697)* 0.140 (− 0.160 to 0.440)
FeNO (ppb) 0.001 (− 0.005 to 0.006) 0.001 (− 0.004 to 0.007) − 0.003 (− 0.008 to 0.002) 0.004 (− 0.002 to 0.010) 0.004 (− 0.002 to 0.011) 0.0002 (− 0.007 to 0.007) − 0.001 (− 0.008 to 0.007) − 0.005 (− 0.013 to 0.003) 0.0002 (− 0.007 to 0.007)
Serum periostin (ng/ml) 0.005 (− 0.008 to 0.018) − 0.004 (− 0.016 to 0.009) 0.004 (− 0.008 to 0.018) − 0.007 (− 0.021 to 0.008) − 0.007 (− 0.223 to 0.009) 0.009 (− 0.007 to 0.025) 0.003 (− 0.015 to 0.022) − 0.010 (− 0.030 to 0.010) 0.009 (− 0.007 to 0.025)
Atopy (vs. no) 0.010 (− 0.471 to 0.491) 0.254 (− 0.202 to 0.711) − 0.312 (− 0.761 to 0.137) 0.276 (− 0.146 to 0.699) 0.061 (− 0.390 to 0.512) − 0.013 (− 0.501 to 0.475) 0.345 (− 0.132 to 0.821) − 0.383 (− 0.890 to 0.123) − 0.013 (− 0.501 to 0.475)
Post− BD FEV1 (% predicted) − 0.011 (− 0.019 to − 0.003)** 0.007 (− 0.001 to 0.015) − 0.011 (− 0.019 to − 0.004)** 0.006 (− 0.002 to 0.014) − 0.002 (− 0.010 to 0.007) − 0.009 (− 0.018 to 0.0004) − 0.006 (− 0.016 to 0.005) − 0.007 (− 0.018 to 0.004) − 0.009 (− 0.018 to 0.0004)
Allergic rhinitis (vs. no) − 0.029 (− 0.440 to 0.381) 0.069 (− 0.314 to 0.452) − 0.239 (− 0.603 to 0.126) − 0.007 (− 0.376 to 0.362) − 0.245 (− 0.628 to 0.137) − 0.287 (− 0.701 to 0.127) − 0.040 (− 0.464 to 0.385) − 0.218 (− 0.667 to 0.231) − 0.287 (− 0.701 to 0.127)
Nasal polyps (vs. no) 0.341 (− 0.081 to 0.763) 0.054 (− 0.352 to 0.459) 0.228 (− 0.168 to 0.623) − 0.293 (− 0.694 to 0.108) 0.041 (− 0.363 to 0.446) 0.022 (− 0.432 to 0.475) 0.505 (0.027 to 0.982)* 0.341 (− 0.167 to 0.849) 0.022 (− 0.432 to 0.475)
OCS use (vs. no) 0.650 (0.273 to 1.027)** 0.008 (− 0.370 to 0.387) 0.351 (− 0.017 to 0.718) − 0.408 (− 0.769 to − 0.047)* 0.014 (− 0.377 to 0.404) 0.044 (− 0.377 to 0.465) − 0.302 (− 0.735 to 0.130) 0.356 (− 0.104 to 0.816) 0.044 (− 0.377 to 0.465)
Severe asthma (vs. non− severe) 0.882 (0.408 to 1.356)*** − 0.008 (− 0.487 to 0.472) 0.665 (0.210 to 1.120)** − 0.063 (− 0.435 to 0.310) 0.205 (− 0.186 to 0.596) 0.005 (− 0.377 to 0.471) 0.321 (− 0.107 to 0.749) 0.391 (− 0.064 to 0.845) 0.047 (− 0.377 to 0.471)
  1. Values indicate regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals) and P values from univariate linear regression analyses. Statistically significant correlations are marked bold and also indicated as follows: *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; otherwise non-significant (p > 0.05). †Variable log-transformed. BMI body mass index, FeNO fractional exhaled nitric oxide, post-BD post-bronchodilator, OCS oral corticosteroids
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