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Table 1 The functions of non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2

From: SARS coronavirus 2: from genome to infectome

S. no Proteins Functions Refs
1. nsp1 Interferes with the mRNA binding and suppresses hosts’ immune functions
Anchors the replication complex to cellular membranes
Degrades host’s mRNA by interacting with the human 40S ribosomal subunit
[132, 133]
2. nsp2 Harbours mutations that make it more contagious
Might play a role in modulation of host cell survival; also known as p65 homolog
[132, 134]
3. nsp3 Papain-like protease 2 (PL2pro) involved in proteolytic cleavage [135]
4. nsp4 Responsible for the formation of the double membrane vesicle during replication
Anchors the viral replication-transcription complex to the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum
[136, 137]
5. nsp5 Proteases (3CLpro, Mpro) involved in polypeptide cleaving [138]
6. nsp6 Prevents the expansion of autophagosome, Help in formation of double membrane vesicle; suppresses IFN-I signaling [139, 140]
7. nsp7 Forms a hexadecamer with nsp8 and acts as a primase in viral replication [141]
8. nsp8 Acts as a primase with nsp7 [142, 143]
9. nsp9 Acts as ssRNA binding protein [143, 144]
10. nsp10 Plays role in the methylation of viral mRNA cap. Stimulates the nsp14 3′-5′ exoribonuclease and 2′-O-methyltransferase (NSP16) activities [144]
11 nsp11 Unknown  
12 nsp12 Catalytic subunit of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; Catalyses the synthesis of viral RNA, using nsp7 and nsp8 as cofactors [142, 145, 146]
13. nsp13 Helicase and NTPase activity: hydrolyze the NTPs and unwind the duplex RNA and DNA with a 5′ single-stranded tail in a 5′ to 3′ direction
A potent interferon antagonist
14. nsp14 Guanine-N7 methyltransferase, a multienzyme complex
Acts on both sides ssRNA and dsRNA in a 3′-> 5′ direction
A potent interferon antagonist
It plays role in genome replication, sub-genomic RNA synthesis and recombination
[132, 148, 150]
15. nsp15 It is a nidoviral RNA uridylate‐specific endoribonuclease (NendoU); plays role in viral replication and transcription
A potent interferon antagonist
[148, 151, 152]
16. nsp16 Acts as 2′-O-methyltransferase that mediates mRNA cap 2′-O-ribose methylation to the 5′-cap structure of viral mRNAs [148, 153]