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Fig. 2 | Respiratory Research

Fig. 2

From: Potential role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air pollution-induced non-malignant respiratory diseases

Fig. 2

Possible mechanisms linking polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with non-malignant respiratory diseases via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Four general lines of causality are suggested: (i) formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive electrophilic metabolites (REM) and damage of epithelial/endothelial lung barrier; triggering of (ii) AhR classical genomic, iii) AhR non-classical genomic or iv) AhR non-genomic pathway; DNA ( ); Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP); autonomic nervous system (ANS); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

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