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Table 4 Comparison between prevalence of COPD and moderate to severe COPD (GOLD ≥ 2) in 2009 and 1994 in Northern Sweden

From: Decreased COPD prevalence in Sweden after decades of decrease in smoking

  Unadjusted Adjusted for age and sex Fully adjusted
PR 95% CI P-value PR 95% CI P-value PR 95% CI P-value
All subjects          
 COPD 0.59 (0.39–0.89) 0.011 0.56 (0.38–0.83) 0.004 0.69 (0.46–1.03) 0.071
 GOLD ≥ 2 0.40 (0.24–0.66)  < 0.001 0.38 (0.23–0.62)  < 0.001 0.47 (0.28–0.77) 0.003
Women          
 COPD 0.50 (0.26–0.95) 0.033 0.47 (0.25–0.88) 0.019 0.51 (0.27–0.97) 0.040
 GOLD ≥ 2 0.36 (0.15–0.83) 0.017 0.33 (0.15–0.76) 0.009 0.33 (0.14–0.78) 0.012
Men          
 COPD 0.66 (0.39–1.12) 0.127 0.64 (0.38–1.06) 0.085 0.84 (0.51–1.38) 0.489
 GOLD ≥ 2 0.42 (0.23–0.79) 0.007 0.41 (0.22–0.75) 0.004 0.56 (0.30–1.02) 0.059
Subjects aged > 40 years          
 COPD 0.65 (0.43–0.99) 0.043 0.63 (0.42–0.95) 0.027 0.77 (0.50–1.17) 0.215
 GOLD ≥ 2 0.44 (0.26–0.73) 0.002 0.42 (0.26–0.70) 0.001 0.52 (0.31–0.86) 0.011
  1. Results expressed as prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% CI from Poisson regression analyses, comparing 2009 with 1994
  2. PR = Prevalence ratio comparing the prevalence in 2009 with the prevalence in 1994
  3. The fully adjusted model includes year of study, age, sex, BMI categories, socioeconomy, and smoking habits as covariates. P-values from Wald chi-square test. Information on exposure to gas, dust or fumes not available in 1994 and thus not included in the models. Bold font indicates P < 0.05
  4. COPD = Post-bronchodilator chronic airway obstruction according to the fixed ratio definition (FEV1/FVC < 0.7) in combination with respiratory symptoms. GOLD ≥ 2 = COPD with post-BD FEV1 < 80% of predicted
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