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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics, treatment and outcome between severe and non-severe COVID-19 pneumonia

From: The effect of vascular risk factor burden on the severity of COVID-19 illness, a retrospective cohort study

  Total (n = 164) Severe (n = 29) Non-severe (n = 135) P
Age, (y) mean ± SD 61.8 ± 13.6 71.0 ± 12.8 59.8 ± 12.9 < 0.001
Male, n (%) 84 (51.2) 20 (69.0) 64 (47.4) 0.04
Current smoker, n (%) 17 (10.4) 2 (6.9) 15 (11.1) 0.73
Regular drinker, n (%) 3 (1.8) 0 3 (2.2) > 0.99
Hypertension, n (%) 52 (31.7) 13 (44.8) 39 (28.9) 0.09
Diabetes, n (%) 31 (18.9) 7 (24.1) 24 (17.8) 0.43
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 63 (38.4) 18 (62.1) 45 (33.3) 0.004
Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 10 (6.1) 4 (13.8%) 6 (4.4%) 0.14
Overweight, n (%) 55 (33.5) 14 (48.3) 41 (30.4) 0.06
Physical inactivity, n (%) 103 (62.8) 26 (89.7) 77 (57.0) 0.001
COPD, n (%) 12 (7.3) 4 (13.8) 8 (5.9) 0.28
Cardio-cerebrovascular disease, n (%) 23 (14.0) 8 (27.6) 15 (11.1) 0.020
Renal impairment, n (%) 25 (15.2) 10 (34.5) 15 (11.1) 0.001
Digestive disease, n (%) 15 (9.1) 1 (3.4) 14 (10.4) 0.41
Immunosuppresives, n (%) 3 (1.8) 1 (3.4) 2 (1.5) > 0.99
Tumor, n (%) 13 (7.9) 3 (10.3) 10 (7.4) 0.88
Wet market exposure, n (%) 2 (1.2) 1 (3.4) 1 (0.7) 0.79
Clinical symptoms
 Fever, n (%) 115 (70.1) 20 (69.0) 95 (70.4) 0.88
 Dry cough, n (%) 104 (63.4) 19 (65.5) 85 (63.0) 0.80
 Productive cough, n (%) 23 (14.0) 2 (6.9) 21 (15.6) 0.36
 Fatigue, n (%) 57 (34.8) 9 (31.0) 48 (35.6) 0.64
 Muscle or joint ache, n (%) 21 (12.8) 2 (6.9) 19 (14.1) 0.46
 Thoracalgia, n (%) 31 (18.9) 6 (20.7) 25 (18.5) 0.79
 Sore throat, n (%) 23 (14.0) 4 (13.8) 19 (14.1) > 0.99
 Diarrhea, n (%) 13 (7.9) 4 (13.8) 9 (6.7) 0.36
 Catarrh, n (%) 6 (3.7) 0 6 (4.4) 0.59
 Anorexia, n (%) 48 (29.3) 8 (27.6) 40 (29.6) 0.83
 Short of breath, n (%) 65 (39.6) 15 (51.7) 50 (37.0) 0.14
 Headache, n (%) 19 (11.6) 3 (10.3) 16 (11.9) > 0.99
 Total symptoms (IQR) 3 [2–4] 3 [2–4] 3 [2–4] 0.94
Routine blood examinations     
 Decreased leucocytes, n (%) 11 (6.7) 5 (17.2) 6 (4.4) 0.01
 Decreased lymphocytes, n (%) 55 (33.5) 19 (65.5) 36 (26.7) < 0.001
 Decreased hemoglobin, n (%) 42 (25.6) 15 (51.7) 27 (20.0) < 0.001
 Decreased platelets, n (%) 14 (8.5) 7 (24.1) 7 (5.2) 0.001
 Increased ALT or AST, n (%) 58 (35.4) 14 (18.3) 44 (32.6) 0.11
 Increased LDH, n (%) 50 (30.7) 17 (58.6) 33 (24.6) < 0.001
Complications
 Acute stroke, n (%) 3 (1.8) 3 (10.3) 0 0.005
 Shock, n (%) 3 (1.8) 3 (10.3) 0 0.005
CT findings, n (%)     0.04
 Unilateral pneumonia, n (%) 26 (15.9) 3 (10.3) 23 (17.0)  
 Bilateral pneumonia, n (%) 86 (52.4) 11 (37.9) 75 (55.6)  
 Multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity, n (%) 52 (31.7) 15 (51.7) 37 (27.4)  
Treatment
 Oxygen therapy, n (%)     < 0.001
  Nasal cannula, n (%) 79 (48.2) 16 (55.2) 63 (46.7)  
  Medical mask, n (%) 5 (3.0) 5 (17.2) 0  
  High solution, n (%) 5 (3.0) 5 (17.2) 0  
  Invasive ventilation, n (%) 3 (1.8) 3 (10.3) 0  
 Glucocorticoid, n (%) 20 (12.2) 9 (31.0) 11 (8.1) 0.001
 Antibacterial, n (%) 117 (71.8) 23 (82.1) 94 (69.6) 0.18
 Antivirus, n (%) 158 (96.3) 27 (93.1) 131 (97.0) 0.63
 Chinese traditional medicine, n (%) 156 (95.1) 26 (89.7) 130 (96.3) 0.30
 Outcomes Cured at discharge, n (%) 103 (62.8) 9 (31.0) 94 (69.6) < 0.001
 Death, n (%) 6 (3.7) 6 (20.7) 0 < 0.001
  1. Tumor was defined by patients’ self-report of having a history of a malignant tumor. Decreased means below the lower limit of the normal range and increased means over the upper limit of the normal range
  2. Abbreviations: COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, SD Standard deviation, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IQR Interquartile range, ALT Alanine transaminase (U/L; normal range 0–40), AST Alanine aminotransferase (U/L; normal range 0–40), LDH Lactate dehydrogenase (U/L; normal range 109–245, data available in 163 patients), CT Computed tomography, Leucocytes (× 109/L; normal range 3.5–9.5), Lymphocytes (× 109/L; normal range 1.1–3.2), Platelets (× 109/L; normal range 125.0–350.0), Hemoglobin (g/L; normal range 130.0–175.0)