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Table 3 Chest X-ray/CT features of COVID-19, SARS and MERS patients

From: From SARS and MERS to COVID-19: a brief summary and comparison of severe acute respiratory infections caused by three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses

  COVID-19 [132, 133] SARS [134, 135] MERS [136, 137]
Image performance Bilateral, multifocal, peripheral distribution Unilateral, focal; unilateral, multifocal; bilateral; peripheral distribution Bilateral, multifocal; isolated unilateral; peripheral distribution
Normal radiography 19.90% 18.40% 20.00%
Abnormal radiography
 Ground-glass opacities 68.92% 68.48% 86.36%
 Crazy paving pattern 8.56% 46.27% 26.67%
 Consolidation 26.64% 65.65% 50.00%
 Interlobular septal thickening 34.54% 55.22% 40.91%
 Air bronchogram 34.54% 37.04% NA
 Pleural effusion 3.57% 17.31% 54.55%
 Pneumothorax Rare 9.62% Rare
 Centrilobular nodules Not seen Not seen Not seen
 Cavitation Not seen Not seen Not seen
 Lymphadenopathy 6.00% Not seen Not seen
  1. NA not available