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Fig. 3 | Respiratory Research

Fig. 3

From: Improving the evaluation of COPD exacerbation treatment effects by accounting for early treatment discontinuations: a post-hoc analysis of randomized clinical trials

Fig. 3

Hazard ratios for exacerbations estimated using a shared frailty model fitted to simulated data. Data were generated using a joint model with a gamma-distributed frailty with different levels of frailty variance, different association between exacerbation and discontinuation risks, and different treatment discontinuation rates between the two treatment arms. The mean (overall) rate of exacerbations was set to 0.9 per year, the overall percentage of discontinuations to 25%, and the true hazard ratio for the risk of exacerbations to 0.6 in all scenarios. The y-axis shows the estimated median hazard ratio across 1000 simulations

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