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Table 4 Result of the multiple beta-binomial mixed-effects model adjusted by time-dependent covariates for the Impacts component of the SGRQ questionnaire over time

From: Predictive factors over time of health-related quality of life in COPD patients

SGRQ  βSD(β)POR95%CI
ImpactsIntercept 3.1500.229< 0.001
Time(year)−0.0260.0080.0020.974(0.959–0.991)
Age(5 years)− 0.1670.010< 0.0010.846(0.829–0.864)
FEV1(100 ml)−0.0310.004< 0.0010.970(0.962–0.978)
RV%(9%)0.0130.003< 0.0011.013(1.007–1.019)
DLCO%(11%)−0.0430.008< 0.0010.958(0.943–0.973)
Handgrip(5 kg)−0.0570.009< 0.0010.945(0.928–0.962)
6mWT(25 m)− 0.0530.005< 0.0010.949(0.940–0.958)
Smoking(10 pack/y)0.0150.0060.0061.015(1.004–1.026)
BMI≤ 30
>  300.1290.032< 0.0011.138(1.068–1.212)
PA< 2 h/week
2–4 h/week−0.1010.0530.0560.904(0.814–1.002)
> 4 h/weeka−0.2560.052< 0.0010.774(0.700–0.857)
Work/intense−0.4330.061< 0.0010.649(0.576–0.731)
CCI0–3
>  3−0.1200.0370.0010.887(0.825–0.953)
Treatmentb0–1 out of LABA/LAMA
2 out of LABA/LAMA/ICS0.1410.0580.0141.152(1.028–1.290)
LABA+LAMA+ICS0.0870.0500.0841.090(0.988–1.203)
Previous hospitalizations0
10.0430.0410.2941.044(0.964–1.131)
20.2570.060< 0.0011.293(1.149–1.454)
> 20.1560.0540.0041.169(1.050–1.300)
Sigmac 0.9510.030
  1. BMI body mass index, CCI Charlson comorbidity index, DLCO carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in the first second, PA physical activity, RV residual volume, 6mWT 6-min walking test, SD standard deviation, OR odds ratio, CI Confidence interval
  2. a Gardening subjects were included in this category
  3. b Treatment has been classified as follows: 0–1 out of LABA/LAMA; 2 out of LABA/LAMA/ICS; 3 of them LABA+LAMA+ICS
  4. c Standard deviation of the random intercept