Time to first moderate or severe COPD exacerbation (a), time to treatment failure (b), and time to first CID (c) in the pooled ITT, exacerbation history, and CAT ≥15 populations. Data are hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals). *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; †p < 0.0001. The exacerbation history population includes patients with ≥1 moderate or severe exacerbations in the previous year. CAT, COPD assessment test; CID, clinically important deterioration; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Exac., exacerbation; FF, formoterol fumarate; GFF, glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate; GP, glycopyrrolate; ITT, intent-to-treat; MDI, metered dose inhaler.