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Table 1 Patient demographics and major clinical history

From: Microbial burden and viral exacerbations in a longitudinal multicenter COPD cohort

Age at Basine, years Patient characteristics* Europea (n = 101) USAb (n = 99) P-value
Female 37 (36.7%) 33 (33.3%) 0.6
Age at Baseline, years 65 [50–81] 66 [51–93] 0.2
Smoking status    0.008
 Current 30 (29.7%) 26 (26.8%)  
 Former 54 (53.5%) 67 (69%)  
 Non-smoker 17 (16.8%) 4 (4.1%)  
Smoking history, pack-years 31 [0–90] 51 [0–128] 1.0E-06
Years of COPD 9 [1–32] 11 [1–34] 0.02
Years of severe COPD 4 [1–15] 7 [1–33] 5.0E-04
GOLDcstage    0.9
 Mild 1 (0.9%) 0 (0%)  
 Moderate 2 (2%) 2 (2%)  
 Severe 69 (68.3%) 66 (68.8%)  
 Very Severe 29 (28.7%) 28 (29.2%)  
FEV1d 39 [17–85] 37 [13–71] 0.1
Frequent exacerbatore 18 (17.8%) 29 (29.3%) 0.06
Exacerbations per year 1.1 [0–11.8] 1.7 [0–12.1] 0.05
Congestive heart failure 28 (27.7%) 16 (16.2%) 0.06
Diabetes 25 (24.8%) 29 (29.9%) 0.4
Hypertension 61 (60.4%) 70 (72.1%) 0.08
Malignancy 2 (2%) 5 (5.1%) 0.2
  1. * Categorical data presented as number (proportion), and continuous variable as mean [range]
  2. a Patients recruited at 11 sites in Bulgaria and Czech Republic
  3. b Patients recruited at 14 sites in Alabama, Arizona, Georgia, Iowa, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Wisconsin
  4. c Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
  5. d Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s, expressed in % of predicted based on height and weight
  6. e ≥ 2 exacerbations/ year