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Table 3 Acute lung injury features and measurements

From: Acute respiratory distress syndrome subphenotypes and therapy responsive traits among preclinical models: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

Features Relevant measurements
Histological evidence of lung injury Accumulation of neutrophils in the alveolar/interstitial space
Formation of hyaline membranes
Proteinaceous debris in alveolar space
Proteinaceous debris in alveolar space
Thickening of the alveolar wall
Injury by a standardized histology score
Evidence of hemorrhage
Areas of atelectasis
Gross macroscopic changes such as discoloration of the lungs
Alteration of the alveolar capillary barrier Increased extravascular lung water content
Accumulation of protein/tracer in airspaces/extravascular space
Total BAL protein concentration
BAL concentration of high molecular weight proteins
Vascular filtration coefficient
Translocation of a protein from the airspaces into plasma
Increased lung lymph flow, lymph protein concentration
Inflammation BAL total neutrophil counts
Lung MPO activity
Concentrations of cytokines and chemokines in lung tissue, in BAL fluid, and/or in plasma
Physiological dysfunction Hypoxemia
Increased A-a oxygen difference
  1. BAL bronchoalveolar lavage; MPO myeloperoxidase