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Table 1 Literature summary of GM-CSF treatment for PAP

From: Therapeutic effect of subcutaneous injection of low dose recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

TrialsUsage of GM-CSFMaximum dose of GM-CSFMedication timeaEffective rateYearb
Seymour et al. [15]subcutaneous injection5 μg/kg/day300 days100% (n = 1)1996
Kavuru et al. [16]subcutaneous injection9μg/kg/day12 weeks75% (n = 4)2000
Seymour et al [17]subcutaneous injection20μg/kg/d6–12 weeks43%(n = 14)2001
Bonfield et al. [18]subcutaneous injection18 μg/kg/day12–48 weeks55% (n = 11)2002
Tazawa et al. [19]inhalation therapy250 μg/day; every other week24 weeks100% (n = 3)2005
Venkateshiah et al. [20]subcutaneous injection18 μg/kg/day12–52 weeks48% (n = 21)2006
Wylam et al. [21]inhalation therapy500ugbid week-on, week-off3–68 weeks92%(n = 12)2006
Tazawa et al. [22]inhalation therap250 μg/day d1-d8, d9-d14 no use of drugs × 6 cycles24 weeks62% (n = 39)2010
Spyros et al. [23]inhalation therapy250μg qd 4 days-on, 4 days-off14–65 weeks100%(n = 6)2014
Tazawa et al. [24]inhalation therapy(125 μg bid d1-d8, d9-d14 no use of drugs × 6 cycles) + (125 μg qd d1-d4,d5-d14 no use of drugs× 6 cycles)24 weeks66%(n = 352014
  1. GM-CSF Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, PAP Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
  2. aMedication time:The time of administration was fixed in some studies, while varied in some studies. In this situation, the medication time was showed as the shortest time - the longest time in this table
  3. byear: The publication time of the study