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Table 1 Overview of included studies and study characteristics at baseline

From: Single-inhaler triple therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

Study Treatment Key comparisons Study length Number of patients FEV1, post-bronchodilator, % of predicted normal value CAT score Exacerbation rate (range) Exacerbations in the previous year Prior triple therapyc Prior ICS Patients with asthma
≥10 Mean (SD) ≥1 moderate or severe ≥2 moderate or severe ≥1 severe
TRINITY [16] GLY/FOR/BDP (Trimbow) Triple therapy (single inhaler) versus TIOa 52 weeks 2691 36.6% 100% 21.5 (5.8) 1.3 (1–11) NR NR NR Excluded 77% Excluded
TIO 36.6% 100% 21.6 (5.8) 1.3 (1–5) NR NR NR 78%
FOR/BDP + TIO 36.7% 100% 21.7 (6.0) 1.2 (1–7) NR NR NR 73%
TRILOGY [17] GLY/FOR/BDP (Trimbow) Triple therapy versus LABA/ICS 52 weeks 1368 36.9% 100% 20.8 (5.9) 1.2 (1–5) NR NR NR Excluded 75% Excluded
FOR/BDP 36.2% 100% 20.8 (5.7) 1.2 (1–6) NR NR NR 73%
TRIBUTE [23] GLY/FOR/BDP (Trimbow) Triple therapy versus LAMA/LABA 52 weeks 1532 36.4% 100% NR 1.2 (1–6) 100% 20% NR Excluded 66% Excluded
GLY/IND 36.4% 100% NR 1.2 (1–4) 100% 18% NR 64%
FULFILb [24] UMEC/VI/FF (Trelegy Ellipta) Triple therapy versus LABA/ICS 24 weeks (extension to 52 weeks) 1810 (430) 47.1% 100% NR NR 70% 34% NR 32% 66% Excluded
FOR/B + placebo 45.4% 100% NR NR 67% 31% NR 33% 67%
IMPACT [25, 31] UMEC/VI/FF (Trelegy Ellipta) Triple therapy versus LAMA/LABA
Triple therapy versus LABA/ICS
52 weeks 10,355 45.7% 100% 20.1 (6.1) NR 99.95% 55% 26% 38% 72% Excludedd
UMEC/VI 45.4% 100% 20.2 (6.2) NR 99.90% 55% 25% 40% 72%
VI/FF 45.5% 100% 20.1 (6.1) NR 99.88% 54% 26% 38% 70%
KRONOS [26] GLY/FOR/B Triple therapy versus LAMA/LABA
Triple therapy versus LABA/ICS
24 weeks 1902 NR 100% 18.7 (6.4) 0.4 (0.8)e
0.0 (0–8)f
27% 7% NR 31% 72% Excluded
GLY/FOR NR 100% 18.1 (6.1) 0.3 (0.7)e
0.0 (0–5)f
24% 7% NR 28% 71%
FOR/B NR 100% 18.4 (6.6) 0.3 (0.6)e
0.0 (0–4)f
25% 6% NR 34% 71%
  1. B budesonide, BDP beclomethasone, CAT COPD assessment test, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. FEV1 forced expiratory volume in one second, FF fluticasone furoate, FOR formoterol fumarate, FULFIL Lung FUnction and quality of LiFe assessment in COPD with closed trIpLe therapy, GLY glycopyrronium bromide, ICS inhaled corticosteroids, IMPACT InforMing the PAthway of COPD Treatment, IND indacaterol, LABA long-acting β2 agonist, LAMA long-acting muscarinic antagonist, NR not reported, SD standard deviation, TIO tiotropium, UMEC umeclidinium, VI vilanterol
  2. aOther comparisons were triple therapy (single inhaler) versus LABA/ICS + LAMA and TIO versus LABA/ICS + LAMA
  3. b52-week data
  4. cIncluding LAMA, LAMA and ICS
  5. dPatients with a prior history of asthma, but not those with a current diagnosis of asthma, were eligible for inclusion
  6. eMean (SD)
  7. fMedian (range)