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Table 1 Production of IL-8 and TNF- α following treatment of A549 cells with pathway inhibitors, and infection with bacteria, or bacteria exposed to cigarette smoke extract or electronic cigarette vapour. Where a statistically significant reduction in cytokine was observed, this was denoted by “↓”

From: Electronic cigarette vapour increases virulence and inflammatory potential of respiratory pathogens

 Significant decrease (↓)in IL-8 following treatment of A549 cells with pathway inhibitors, and infection with bacteria +/− CSE or ECVESignificant decrease (↓)in TNF-α following treatment of A549 cells with pathway inhibitors, and infection with bacteria +/− CSE or ECVE
NFκB inhibitor (BAY117085)MAPK inhibitor (SB203580)JNK inhibitor (SP600125)MEK1/2 inhibitor (U0126)NFκB inhibitor (BAY117085)MAPK inhibitor (SB203580)JNK inhibitor (SP600125)MEK1/2 inhibitor (U0126)
H. influenzae    
H. influenzae + CSE    
H. influenzae + ECVE    
S. pneumoniae    
S. pneumoniae + CSE     
S. pneumoniae + ECVE     
S.aureus   
S.aureus + CSE    
S.aureus + ECVE   
P.aeruginosa  
P.aeruginosa + CSE 
P.aeruginosa + ECVE