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Table 5 Adjusted mean annual direct and indirect costs of GOLD Grades – Basic model

From: Direct and indirect costs of COPD progression and its comorbidities in a structured disease management program: results from the LQ-DMP study

  GOLD grade 1 GOLD grade 2 GOLD grade 3 GOLD grade 4
N Mean (CI 95%) N Mean (CI 95%) N Mean (CI 95%) N Mean (CI 95%)
Total direct costs 12,053 (30.7%) €3809 [€3691–€3935] 18,119 (46.1%) €4284 [€4176–€4394]*** 7383 (18.8%) €5548 [€5328–€5774]*** 1752 (4.5%) €8309 [€7583–€9065]***
Ambulatory costs 12,053 (30.7%) €553 [€533–€574] 18,119 (46.1%) €601 [€579–€623]*** 7383 (18.8%) €588 [€558–€621] 1752 (4.5%) €579 [€511–€662]
Medication costs 12,053 (30.7%) €594 [€571–€619] 18,119 (46.1%) €716 [€688–€746]*** 7383 (18.8%) €930 [€877–€994]*** 1752 (4.5%) €1486 [€1176–€1862]***
Hospitalization 12,053 (30.7%) €2045 [€1946–€2147] 18,119 (46.1%) €2268 [€2184–€2354]*** 7383 (18.8%) €3000 [€2836–€3169]*** 1752 (4.5%) €4272 [€3819–€4711]***
Rehabilitation costs 12,053 (30.7%) €128 [€116–€141] 18,119 (46.1%) €145 [€134–€157]* 7383 (18.8%) €179 [€160–€201]*** 1752 (4.5%) €259 [€215–€305]***
Remedies 12,053 (30.7%) €400 [€384–€417] 18,119 (46.1%) €427 [€413–€442]* 7383 (18.8%) €609 [€579–€640]*** 1752 (4.5%) €1068 [€978–€1158]***
Travel costs 12,053 (30.7%) €113 [€105–€122] 18,119 (46.1%) €130 [€186–€214]** 7383 (18.8%) €200 [€186–€214]*** 1752 (4.5%) €321 [€279–€366]***
Total indirect costs 3705 (31.0%) €11,784 [€11,257–€12,318] 5473 (45.7%) €12,985 [€12,531–€13,443]** 2160 (18.1%) €15,805 [€15,034–€16,584]*** 632 (5.3%) €19,402 [€17,853–€21,017]***
Sick day costs 3705 (31.0%) €2941 [€2750–€3132] 5473 (45.7%) €3162 [€2984–€3344] 2160 (18.1%) €3256 [€2975–€3534] 632 (5.3%) €3195 [€2633–€3806]
Premature retirement costs 3705 (31.0%) €9105 [€8622–€9575] 5473 (45.7%) €9762 [€9361–€10,159]* 2160 (18.1%) €12,247 [€11,582–€12,919]*** 632 (5.3%) €15,634 [€14,390–€16,901]***
  1. Significant differences between GOLD grade 1 and the other groups:* p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 *** p < 0.001.
  2. Confidence intervals and p-values of the cost differences were derived by bootstrapping the original data set with 5000 bootstraps [17]
  3. bold: p > 0.05