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Table 4 Effect of COPD on annual direct and indirect costs – basic and extended models

From: Direct and indirect costs of COPD progression and its comorbidities in a structured disease management program: results from the LQ-DMP study

Covariate Direct costs Indirect cots
Basic model Extended model Basic model Extended model
Exp(beta) (CI 95%) Exp(beta) (CI 95%) Exp(beta) (CI 95%) Exp(beta) (CI 95%)
Intercept   2349.13 (2236.80-2467.10) 2047.55 (1937.01-2164.19) 4225.11 (3770.26-4734.82) 3425.83 (2959.28-3965.95)
GOLD Grade 1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Grade 2 1.13 (1.10–1.16) 1.12 (1.09–1.15) 1.08 (0.99–1.18) 1.08 (0.99–1.18)
Grade 3 1.46 (1.41–1.51) 1.45 (1.40–1.50) 1.33 (1.19–1.49) 1.36 (1.21–1.52)
Grade 4 2.18 (2.06–2.32) 2.29 (2.16–2.43) 1.64 (1.37–1.96) 1.74 (1.45–2.09)
Age (years) < 55 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
55–64 1.34 (1.28–1.40) 1.17 (1.12–1.23) 1.96 (1.80–2.14) 1.85 (1.70–2.02)
65–74 1.57 (1.50–1.64) 1.26 (1.20–1.32)
> 74 1.81 (1.73–1.89) 1.39 (1.32–1.46)
Sex Female 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Male 1.04 (1.02–1.07) 1.00 (0.97–1.02) 1.03 (0.95–1.12) 1.03 (0.95–1.12)
Income % income < €5.000 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
% income€5000 < €10,000 1.07 (1.04–1.10) 1.05 (1.02–1.08) 3.20 (2.85–3.59) 3.18 (2.83–3.57)
% income €10,000 < €15,000 1.06 (1.02–1.10) 1.04 (1.01–1.08) 2.14 (1.87–2.46) 2.14 (1.87–2.45)
% income €15,000 < €20,000 0.97 (0.93–1.02) 0.99 (0.94–1.03) 1.46 (1.26–1.68) 1.49 (1.29–1.38)
% income €20,000 < €30,000 0.81 (0.77–0.87) 0.85 (0.81–0.89) 1.17 (1.03–1.31) 1.23 (1.09–1.38)
% income €30,000 < €50,000 0.82 (0.77–0.87) 0.87 (0.82–0.92) 1.00 (0.89–1.14) 1.05 (0.93–1.19)
% income ≥ €50.000 0.84 (0.74–0.96) 0.88 (0.78–1.00) 1.01 (0.78–1.32) 1.04 (0.80–1.35)
Smoking status Never smokers or former smokers (quit > 8 years ago)   1.00   1.00
Current smokers   0.91 (0.89–0.94)   0.94 (0.86–1.03)
Former smokers (quit within the last 8 years)   1.12 (1.08–1.16)   1.03 (0.91–1.15)
Weight Normal weight   1.00   1.00
Underweight   1.29 (1.18–1.40)   1.24 (0.97–1.57)
Overweight   0.92 (0.89–0.95)   1.02 (0.92–1.13)
Obese   0.99 (0.96–1.02)   1.16 (1.06–1.27)
Comorbidities Diabetes   1.32 (1.29–1.36)   1.22 (1.11–1.35)
Stroke   1.30 (1.27–1.34)   1.25 (1.13–1.39)
Infarction   1.51 (1.46–1.57)   1.16 (1.01–1.34)
Cancer   1.38 (1.35–1.42)   1.27 (1.16–1.39)
Arthritis   1.19 (1.15–1.23)   1.22 (1.07–1.39)
  1. bold: p > 0.05