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Table 3 Unadjusted healthcare utilization, work absenteeism and resulting costs

From: Direct and indirect costs of COPD progression and its comorbidities in a structured disease management program: results from the LQ-DMP study

  GOLD grade 1 GOLD grade 2 GOLD grade 3 GOLD grade 4 p-value
N 12,053 (30.7%) 18,119 (46.1%) 7383 (18.8%) 1752 (4.5%)  
 Healthcare utilization
 Outpatient services
  % User 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1.0000
  Total number of visits 15.8 (8.7) 16.0 (9.0) 15.3 (8.7) 14.1 (8.0) < 0.0001
  General practitioner 8.2 (5.7) 8.4 (5.9) 8.2 (5.8) 7.8 (5.5) < 0.0001
  Specialist 6.3 (5.4) 6.4 (5.6) 6.0 (5.3) 5.3 (4.6) < 0..0001
 Inpatient services
  % User 10.9 12.7 17.5 23.0 < 0.0001
  Number of hospital days 4.3 (12.5) 4.8 (12.6) 6.6 (14.6) 8.9 (17.2) < 0.0001
 Prescribed medication
  %User 97.6 98.3 98.8 99.1 < 0.0001
  Number of prescribed drugs 15.4 (12.1) 17.0 (12.6) 20.0 (14.5) 22.1 (14.8) < 0.0001
 Direct costs
  Outpatient costs €548 €600 €604 €564 0.0109
  Inpatients costs €2034 €2271 €3042 €4192 < 0.0001
  Medication costs €593 €716 €932 €1478 < 0.0001
  Rehabilitation €130 €146 €176 €232 < 0.0001
  Aids and Remedies €404 €428 €603 €1016 < 0.0001
  Travel costs €112 €131 €203 €320 < 0.0001
  Total direct costs €3821 €4292 €5561 €7801 < 0.0001
  GOLD grade 1 GOLD grade 2 GOLD grade 3 GOLD grade 4 p-value
N 3705 (31.0%) 5473 (45.7%) 2160 (18.1%) 632 (5.3%)  
 Works absenteeism (participants < 65 years)
  %retired 22.0 25.6 37.2 50.6 < 0.0001
  %employed 52.9 47.0 38.3 25.6 < 0.0001
  % with sick days 78.8 80.0 81.2 81.5 0.4724
  Number of sick days 43.3 44.9 53.0 66.1 0.0001
 Indirect costs (participants < 65 years)
  Sick days €3069 €3148 €3138 €2737 < 0.0001
  Premature retirement €8777 €10,188 €14,743 €20,195 < 0.0001
  Total indirect costs €11,846 €13,336 €17,880 €22,932 < 0.0001