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Table 2 Characteristics of the study population

From: Direct and indirect costs of COPD progression and its comorbidities in a structured disease management program: results from the LQ-DMP study

  GOLD grade 1 GOLD grade 2 GOLD grade 3 GOLD grade 4 p-value
N 12,053 (30.7%) 18,119 (46.1%) 7383 (18.8%) 1752 (4.5%)  
Age (years) 70.0 (11.7) 70.1 (10.8) 70.0 (9.8) 67.8 (9.2) < 0.0001
Age > 74 years 4900 (40.7%) 6980 (38.5%) 2587 (35.0%) 438 (25.0%) < 0.0001
Age 65–74 years 3448 (28.6%) 5666 (31.3%) 2636 (35.7%) 682 (38.9%)
Age 55–64 years 2443 (20.3%) 4016 (22.2%) 1733 (23.5%) 506 (28.9%)
Age < 55 1262 (10.5%) 1457 (8.0%) 427 (5.8%) 126 (7.2%)
Female 6319 (52.4%) 8268 (45.6%) 2701 (36.6%) 577 (32.9%) < 0.0001
income < €5.000 2915 (24.2%) 4222 (23.3%) 1600 (21.7%) 382 (21.8%) < 0.0001
income€5000 < €10,000 3920 (32.5%) 6140 (33.9%) 2740 (37.1%) 713 (40.7%)
income €10,000 < €15,000 2486 (20.6%) 3868 (21.4%) 1595 (21.6%) 333 (19.0%)
income €15,000 < €20,000 944 (7.8%) 1416 (7.8%) 544 (7.4%) 113 (6.5%)
income €20,000 < €30,000 1020 (8.5%) 1383 (7.6%) 497 (6.7%) 112 (6.4%)
income €30,000 < €50,000 669 (5.6%) 936 (5.2%) 360 (4.9%) 76 (4.3%)
income ≥ €50.000 99 (0.8%) 154 (0.9%) 47 (0.6%) 23 (1.3%)
Current smokers 3143 (26.1%) 5822 (32.1%) 2631 (35.6%) 600 (34.3%) < 0.0001
Former smokers (quit within the last 8 years) 1343 (11.1%) 2451 (13.5%) 1327 (18.0%) 402 (23.0%)
Never smokers or former smokers (quit > 8 years ago) 7567 (62.8%) 9846 (54.3%) 3425 (46.4%) 750 (42.8%)
BMI (kg/m2) 29.3 (5.8) 29.3 (6.2) 27.9 (6.2) 26.1 (6.1) < 0.0001
Normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25) 2578 (21.4%) 4254 (23.5%) 2243 (30.4%) 681 (38.9%) < 0.0001
Overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) 4523 (37.5%) 6370 (35.2%) 2449 (33.2%) 517 (29.5%)
Obese (BMI ≥ 30) 4834 (40.1%) 7247 (40.0%) 2397 (32.5%) 408 (23.3%)
Underweight (BMI < 18.5) 118 (1.0%) 248 (14.4%) 294 (4.00%) 146 (8.3%)
Diabetes 4306 (35.7%) 6669 (36.8%) 2574 (34.9%) 481 (27.5%) < 0.0001
Stroke 3509 (29.1%) 5444 (30.1%) 2055 (27.8%) 406 (23.2%) < 0.0001
Myocardial infarction 1430 (11.9%) 2371 (13.1%) 1069 (14.5%) 244 (13.9%) < 0.0001
Cancer 3612 (30.00%) 5708 (31.5%) 2318 (31.4%) 470 (26.8%) < 0.0001
Arthritis 1853 (15.4%) 2462 (13.6%) 824 (11.2%) 145 (8.3%) < 0.0001