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Table 4 Parameter estimates (analogous to Table 2) for regression analyses adjusting for SGRQ score or FEV1

From: Decline of COPD exacerbations in clinical trials over two decades – a systematic review and meta-regression

Parameter Estimate Implied percentage change pB
Adjusting for SGRQ (28 studies):
 Rate intercept β0 0.760 (−1.301, 2.804)   
 Rate slope β1 (publication year) −0.096 (− 0.130, − 0.058) −9.114 (− 12.205, − 5.644) <  0.001
 Rate slope β2 (SGRQ score) −0.001 (− 0.041, 0.038) −0.093 (− 4.015, 3.923) 0.961
 Rate random effect σλ 0.247 (0.145, 0.415)   
 Overdispersion mean μφ 0.263 (−0.645, 0.917)   
 Overdispersion random effect σφ 0.954 (0.414, 1.723)   
adjusting for FEV1 (50 studies):
 Rate intercept β0 1.674 (0.876, 2.482)   
 Rate slope β1 (publication year) −0.050 (−0.079, − 0.022) −4.912 (− 7.598, − 2.172) 0.001
 Rate slope β2 (FEV1) − 0.028 (− 0.046, − 0.011) −2.810 (− 4.517, −1.093) 0.002
 Rate random effect σλ 0.374 (0.279, 0.498)   
 Overdispersion mean μφ − 0.150 (−1.008, 0.340)   
 Overdispersion random effect σφ 0.726 (0.299, 1.508)   
Adjusting for SGRQ and FEV1 (25 studies):
 Rate intercept β0 2.664 (−0.261, 5.583)   
 Rate slope β1 (publication year) −0.045 (− 0.102, 0.008) −4.404 (−9.737, 0.816) 0.094
 Rate slope β2 (SGRQ score) −0.009 (− 0.051, 0.035) −0.849 (− 4.963, 3.610) 0.690
 Rate slope β3 (FEV1) −0.042 (− 0.079, − 0.004) −4.131 (− 7.614, − 0.369) 0.032
 Rate random effect σλ 0.269 (0.161, 0.426)   
 Overdispersion mean μφ 0.123 (− 0.777, 0.777)   
 Overdispersion random effect σφ 0.744 (0.273, 1.598)