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Table 2 Parameter estimates from regression analysis (all 55 studies). The parameters originally refer to the rate on the logarithmic scale; the effects may also be expressed in terms of a corresponding percentage change (last column). Bayesian posterior tail probabilities (pB) are also provided for the regression coefficients instead of frequentist two-sided p-values

From: Decline of COPD exacerbations in clinical trials over two decades – a systematic review and meta-regression

Parameter Estimate Implied annualpercentage change Pb
Rate intercept β0 0.434 (0.172, 0.702)   
Rate slope β1 (publication year) − 0.070 (− 0.095, − 0.045) −6.719 (− 9.029, − 4.384) <  0.001
Rate random effect σλ 0.409 (0.310, 0.532)   
Overdispersion mean μφ − 0.092 (− 0.913, 0.384)   
Overdispersion random effect σφ 0.709 (0.277, 1.559)