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Table 3 Factors possibly affecting the diagnostic yield of EBUS-GS in patients with pulmonary emphysema

From: Clinical outcomes of radial probe endobronchial ultrasound using a guide sheath for diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions in patients with pulmonary emphysema

Variables Success (n = 91) Failure (n = 38) P-value
Age, years 72 (64–76) 70 (65–75) 0.351
Male gender 88 (97) 38 (100) 0.555
Mean diameter of the lung lesion, mm 29 (23–39) 23 (17–37) 0.008
Severity of pulmonary emphysema
 Mild 55 (60) 15 (40) 0.029
 Moderate or severe 36 (40) 23 (60)  
Distance from pleura to lung lesion, mm 8 (0–27) 0 (0–23) 0.231
Pulmonary function test
 FEV1, % predicted value 80 (64–89) 77 (70–92) 0.953
 FVC, % predicted value 81 (74–89) 84 (73–91) 0.468
 FEV1/FVC, % 69 (60–75) 67 (60–75) 0.614
Lesion location
 Right upper lobe 27 (30) 9 (24) 0.570
 Right middle lobe 9 (10) 3 (8)  
 Right lower lobe 23 (25) 8 (21)  
 Left upper division 16 (18) 6 (16)  
 Left lingular division 3 (3) 4 (11)  
 Left lower lobe 13 (14) 8 (21)  
Bronchus sign
 Positive 87 (96) 15 (40) <  0.001
 Negative 4 (4) 23 (60)  
Character of lesion on CT
 Solid 81 (89) 35 (92) 1.000
 Mixed 1 (1) 0 (0)  
 Ground-glass opacity 1 (1) 0 (0)  
 Cavitary 8 (9) 3 (8)  
EBUS finding
 Within lesion 87 (96) 19 (50) <  0.001
 Adjacent to or outside lesion 4 (4) 19 (50)  
  1. EBUS-GS endobronchial ultrasound using a guide sheath, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC forced vital capacity, CT computed tomography