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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Circulating ESM-1 levels are correlated with the presence of coronary artery disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

Variables Controls
(n = 43)
OSA
non-CAD (n = 117) CAD (n = 68) P value
Male, n (%) 29 (67.44%) 97 (82.91%) 61 (89.70%) 0.207
Ages (years) 48.4 ± 16.1 45.6 ± 11.7 56.3 ± 9.9 <0.001**
Smoke, n (%) 14 (32.56%) 39 (33.30%) 47 (69.12%) <0.001**
Alcohol, n (%) 6 (13.93%) 28 (23.93%) 39 (57.35%) <0.001**
BMI (kg/m2) 23.77 ± 3.78 27.83 ± 4.51 27.06 ± 3.27 0.184
SBP (mmHg) 120 (110–129) 128 (120–136) 123 (118–132.5) 0.115
DBP (mmHg) 74 (69–80) 81 (74–90) 76.5 (70–89) 0.001*
TC (mmol/l) 4.73 ± 1.06 5.09 (4.40–5.95) 4.16 (3.47–4.95) <0.001**
TG (mmol/l) 1.47 (0.99–2.16) 1.54 (1.11–2.10) 1.40 (1.06–1.73) 0.132
HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.23 (1.08–1.50) 1.20 (1.00–1.38) 1.06 (0.87–1.20) 0.029*
LDL-C (mmol/l) 2.72 ± 1.08 3.27 ± 0.96 2.53 ± 0.88 <0.001**
FBG (mmol/l) 5.13 ± 1.30 5.60 ± 1.63 5.94 ± 1.64 0.088
ALT (mmol/l) 20 (13–27) 24.50 (16–37) 27 (22–37) 0.144
AST (mmol/l) 20.49 ± 4.98 24.39 ± 12.26 27.26 ± 12.42 0.053
Creatinine (mmol/l) 61 (54.1–74.6) 70.65 (60.2–79.05) 67.55 (60.28–79.08) 0.656
Uric acid (mmol/l) 331.30 ± 79.64 408.27 ± 100.13 370.34 ± 90.33 0.012*
Homocysteine (umol/l) 9.9 (8.5–15.0) 11.55 (9.10–15.05) 11.8 (9.45–16.10) 0.547
CRP (mg/l) 0.82 (0.27–2.12) 1.58 (0.75–2.97) 1.32 (0.5–3.95) 0.389
ESM-1(pg/ml) 304.24 (114.48–628.32) 585.46 (423.61–812.56) 1279.01 (918.52–1770.71) < 0.001**
AHI 2.80 (1.6–3.70) 37.5 (20.5–60.4) 31.05 (21.88–45.70) < 0.001**
LSaO2(%) 92 (91–93) 80 (68.5–86) 85 (75.5–88) < 0.001**
MSaO2(%) 97 (95.8–97.07) 96 (95.2–97) 93 (93–95) 0.062
ODI 1.50 (0–2.65) 9.3 (2.38–91.8) 36.1 (26.35–54.25) < 0.001**
Longest apnea time(s) 23.00 (0–39.00) 36.2 (24.5–76.75) 76 (41.5–107) < 0.001**
MAD(s) 24 (18.75–27) 27 (19–35.9) 27 (22.95–31.85) < 0.001**
CT90(%) 0 (0–0.10) 5.8 (0.5–26.5) 14.5 (0.8–34.3) < 0.001**
Arl 10.65 (4.58–15.8) 29.9 (18.3–46.5) 35.6 (22.4–48.5) < 0.001**
ESS 7 (4–10) 12 (8–15) 8 (4–11) 0.003*
cIMT (mm) 0.95 ± 0.21 1.17 ± 0.27 1.32 ± 0.34 0.023*
  1. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, median (interquartile range) or n (%). Differences between non-CAD group and CAD group were analyzed by the independent Student t test, χ2 text, or Wilcoxon test
  2. BMI Body mass index, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, TC Total cholesterol, TG Triglyceride, HDL-C High density lipoprotein, LDL-C Low density lipoprotein, FBG Fasting blood glucose, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, CRP C reactive protein, AHI Apnea-hypopnea index, LSaO2 Lowest oxygen saturation, MSaO2 Mean oxygen saturation, ODI Oxygen desaturation index, MAD Mean apnea–hypopnea duration, CT90 Percentage of cumulative time with oxygen saturation below 90%, ArI Arousal index, ESS Epworth sleepiness scale
  3. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.001