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Fig. 1 | Respiratory Research

Fig. 1

From: Systemic Immuno-metabolic alterations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Fig. 1

Metabolic changes in immune cells based on inflammation status. Glucose is the principle substrate used by effector cells such as neutrophils and M1 macrophages for the generation of energy. These are also the cells which are the first-responders to initiate an inflammatory response and thus pro-inflammatory in nature. Fatty acid oxidation is the predominant energy generation pathway used by the naïve and tolerant cells such as M2 macrophages and T memory/regulatory cells. These cells are generally involved in resolving the inflammation and thus are anti-inflammatory in nature

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