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Table 4 Subgroup analysis of risk ratio and prevalence of COPD

From: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroups N Effect size[95% CI] Z P Test of heterogeneity
I 2 P
Risk ratio
 Region
  North America 3 1.560 [1.320, 1.769] 14.58 <  0.001 0.0% 0.968
  Europe 2 2.194 [1.439, 2.948] 5.70 <  0.001 84.7% 0.011
  Asia 1 1.850 [1.695, 2.005] 23.39 <  0.001 NA NA
  Overall 6 1.822 [1.546, 2.099] 12.92 <  0.001 75.4% 0.001
 RA diagnosis
  Database code 3 1.560 [1.320, 1.769] 14.58 <  0.001 0.0% 0.968
  Universal criteria 3 2.062 [1.608, 2.517] 8.89 <  0.001 82.9% 0.003
  Overall 6 1.822 [1.546, 2.099] 12.92 <  0.001 75.4% 0.001
 COPD diagnosis
  Database code 5 1.881 [1.569, 2.192] 11.82 <  0.001 NA NA
  Self-reported 1 1.520 [1.120, 1.920] 7.45 <  0.001 77.7% 0.001
  Overall 6 1.822 [1.546, 2.099] 12.92 <  0.001 75.4% 0.001
Prevalence
 Region
  Asia 2 0.092 [0.081, 0.104] 15.78 <  0.001 92.1% <  0.001
  Europe 3 0.052 [0.033, 0.070] 5.58 <  0.001 93.1% <  0.001
  North America 2 0.048 [0.013, 0.084] 2.65 0.008 99.5 <  0.001
  Multination 1 0.040 [0.034, 0.046] 12.79 <  0.001 NA NA
  Overall 8 0.062 [0.041, 0.083] 5.74 <  0.001 99.5% <  0.001
 RA diagnosis
  Database code 5 0.067 [0.040, 0.094] 4.86 <  0.001 99.7% <  0.001
  ACR criteria 3 0.041 [0.031, 0.051] 7.90 0.039 69.3% <  0.001
  Overall 8 0.062 [0.041, 0.083] 5.74 <  0.001 99.5% <  0.001
 COPD diagnosis
  Database code 6 0.062 [0.038, 0.086] 4.99 <  0.001 99.6% <  0.00
  NA 2 0.065 [0.007, 0.123] 2.19 0.028 81.8% 0.002
  Overall 8 0.062 [0.041, 0.083] 5.74 <  0.001 99.5% <  0.001
  1. CI Confidence interval, N Number of study