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Table 1 Subject Characteristics

From: Loss of skin elasticity is associated with pulmonary emphysema, biomarkers of inflammation, and matrix metalloproteinase activity in smokers

Total subjects (N) 236
Age, mean ± SD 70.4 ± 5.9
Non-Hispanic white, n (%) 236 (100)
Male gender, n (%) 123 (52.1)
BMI, mean ± SD 28.4 ± 4.5
Pack years, median (IQR) 48 (37.5–70)
Current smoker, n (%) 74 (31.4)
FWS, median (IQR) 3 (2.0 to 3.5)
Wrinkled, n (%) 46 (19.5)
VE, median (IQR) 2.5 (1.8 to 3.4)
FEV1% predicted, mean ± SD 82.6 ± 22.4
FEV1/FVC%, mean ± SD 67.7 ± 13.3
FEV1/FVC < 70%, n (%) 113 (47.9%)
GOLD stage, n (% of total N)
 0 (Non-obstructed) 123 (52.1%)
 I 31 (13.2%)
 II 23 (9.8%)
 III 36 (15.3%)
 IV 20 (8.5%)
DLCO % predicted, mean ± SD 67.2 ± 18.0
RV % predicted, mean ± SD 120.5 ± 33.8
RV/TLC %, mean ± SD 44.2 ± 9.0
Visual emphysema, n (%) 130 (55.1%)
%LAA, mean ± SD 4.0 ± 8.2
Perc15, mean ± SD − 910.9 ± 26.9
  1. Notes: BMI, body mass index; SD, standard deviation; FWS, facial wrinkling score; IQR, interquartile range; VE; skin viscoelasticity modulus; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity in 1 s; GOLD, Global initiative for obstructive lung disease; DLCO, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide; RV, residual volume; TLC, total lung capacity; LAA% = low attenuation areas, lung voxels with Hounsfield Unit (HU) values less than − 950; Perc15, HU value at the 15th percentile of the HU value histogram of lung voxels