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Table 1 Subject Characteristics

From: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease upper airway microbiota alpha diversity is associated with exacerbation phenotype: a case-control observational study

  Infrequent Exacerbator Frequent Exacerbator p value*
N 11 11  
Sex, Male (%) 11 (100) 11 (100)  
Age, mean (sd) 68.36 (5.45) 70.82 (7.12) 0.39
Race, white (%) 11 (100) 10 (90.9) 1.00
BMI, mean (sd) 29.25 (6.01) 26.09 (6.85) 0.26
Hypertension, Yes (%) 6 (54.5) 6 (54.5) 1.00
Diabetes, Yes (%) 2 (18.2) 3 (27.3) 1.00
COPD Severity (%)
 Moderate 5 (45.5) 3 (27.3)  
 Severe 4 (36.4) 3 (27.3)  
 Very Severe 2 (18.2) 5 (45.5)  
FEV1% predicted 46.82 (13.93) 35.5 (15.18) 0.088
COPD exacerbations in the last 12 months, mean (sd) 0 (0) 2.91 (1.04) < 0.001
COPD hospitalizations in the last 12 months, mean (sd) 0 (0) 0.55 (0.69) 0.035
Inhaled corticosteroid use, Yes (%) 6 (54.5) 7 (63.6) 1.00
Pack-years of smoking, mean (sd) 61.18 (31.94) 69.55 (48.57) 0.66
Current tobacco use, Yes (%) 5 (45.5) 3 (27.3) 0.66
Current alcohol use, Yes (%) 7 (63.6) 9 (81.8) 0.64
Brush teeth ≥ once daily (%) 9 (81.8) 10 (90.9) 1.00
History of periodontal disease, Yes (%) 3 (27.3) 2 (18.2) 1.00
SGRQ Score, mean (sd) 49.72 (7.92) 48.27 (16.20) 0.792
  1. BMI, body mass index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FEV1% predicted, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, percent of predicted value; sd, standard deviation; SGRQ, St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire
  2. *A Fisher-Pitman permutation test was conducted for all continuous variables and a Fishers exact test for all categorical variables