Skip to main content
Fig. 7 | Respiratory Research

Fig. 7

From: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease upper airway microbiota alpha diversity is associated with exacerbation phenotype: a case-control observational study

Fig. 7

Select frequent exacerbator sputum samples differ markedly from their paired oral wash samples. Oral wash samples are presented in the top row, with sputum samples in the bottom row. Frequent exacerbator samples are present in the left column with infrequent exacerbator samples at right. Samples are labeled by subject ID to facilitate comparisons between sites for the same subject. Class-level taxonomy is provided by color coding (see legend). Oral wash samples are similar across both phenotypes, with the most common taxa being Streptococcus (Bacilli—purple), Veillonella (Negativicutes—orange), and Haemophilus (Gammaproteobacteria—red). Sputum samples differ visually between frequent and infrequent exacerbators, with Haemophilus and Moraxella (both Gammaproteobacteria—red) dominating frequent exacerbator sputum samples 5, 19, and 22. This marked shift in select sputum samples is neither seen across all frequent exacerbator sputum samples nor in any infrequent exacerbator samples. Comparison of frequent exacerbator paired oral wash and sputum samples reveals that this Haemophilus or Moraxella dominance is not reflected in the oral wash samples

Back to article page