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Table 2 Study I: Airway and systemic inflammation in asthma patients grouped by EA and NEA

From: Chitinase-like protein YKL-40 correlates with inflammatory phenotypes, anti-asthma responsiveness and future exacerbations

Variables EA NEA t121/z1 P 1 F222/z2 P 2
Total NA PGA
Blood
 Eosinophils, 109/L 0.43 (0.33, 0.59) 0.14 (0.09, 0.19) 0.14 (0.10, 0.17) * 0.13 (0.07, 0.20) * −8.718 < 0.001 39.043 < 0.001
 Eosinophils, % 6.21 (5.07, 9.12) 2.13 (1.56, 2.93) 2.24 (1.71, 2.87) * 1.81 (0.97, 3.29) * −8.350 < 0.001 34.672 < 0.001
 Neutrophils, 109/L 3.01 (2.96, 4.14) 3.85 (2.95, 5.02) 3.84 (2.74, 5.00) 3.88 (3.32, 5.02) −0.522 0.602 1.043 0.356
 Neutrophils, % 56.50 ± 7.67 63.00 ± 8.67 61.96 ± 8.76* 64.42 ± 8.49* −4.059 < 0.001 8.494 < 0.001
 Monocytes, 109/L 0.38 ± 0.13 0.39 ± 0.15 0.40 ± 0.13 0.39 ± 0.17 − 0.605 0.546 0.184 0.832
 Monocytes, % 5.48 (4.74, 6.39) 6.47 (4.96, 7.31) 6.56 (5.12, 7.68) * 5.62 (4.31, 7.03) −2.000 0.048 3.710 0.028
 YKL-40, ng/mL 31.05 (22.41, 51.10) 47.36 (29.47, 69.80) 47.77 (29.59, 74.97) * 47.36 (28.81, 61.68) * −2.976 0.004 4.388 0.015
 CCL22, pg/mL 600.7 (398.8, 968.2) 920.6 (600.7, 1174.7) 920.6 (604.6, 1108.5) * 871.7 (504.7, 1511.4) * −2.591 0.011 3.315 0.042
 IL-6, pg/mL 1.91 (1.16, 3.48) 1.91 (0.77, 3.72) 1.79 (0.81, 3.61) 2.05 (0.65, 3.89) 0.628 0.532 0.303 0.740
Induced sputum
 Eosinophils, 106/mL 0.11 (0.00, 0.31) 0.00 (0.00, 0.01) 0.01 (0.00, 0.03) * 0.00 (0.00, 0.01) * −3.003 0.003 10.701 0.005
 Eosinophils, % 1.75 (0.00, 8.50) 0.00 (0.00, 0.25) 0.25 (0.00, 0.75) * 0.00 (0.00, 0.25) * −3.284 0.001 11.986 0.002
 Neutrophils, 106/mL 0.88 (0.36, 3.32) 5.93 (2.57, 11.70) 5.93 (2.57, 11.70) * 0.63 (0.22, 1.39) −0.056 0.956 16.969 < 0.001
 Neutrophils, % 42.50 (15.50, 57.75) 40.38 (16.25, 63.38) 87.25 (70.25, 96.00) * 27.88 (12.56, 46.31) * 0.124 0.902 23.306 < 0.001
 Macrophages, 106/mL 1.46 (0.62, 1.96) 1.40 (0.81, 2.91) 0.68 (0.33, 1.46) 1.55 (1.10, 3.23) # −0.596 0.551 8.634 0.013
 Macrophages, % 55.00 (27.25, 74.50) 60.00 (35.75, 82.25) 11.25 (4.00, 29.25) 71.38 (50.75, 87.13) # −0.731 0.465 24.660 < 0.001
 IL-1β, pg/mL 11.90 (5.77, 28.71) 22.19 (8.77, 90.90) 67.09 (8.64, 476.99) * 16.52 (8.84, 40.71) −2.175 0.030 10.361 < 0.001
 IL-5, pg/mL 1.91 (1.11, 6.04) 1.50 (0.95, 3.13) 1.12 (0.91, 3.50) 1.68 (1.05, 2.94) −0.767 0.443 0.811 0.667
 IL-8, pg/mL 1272.00 (638.28, 2047.75) 1950.00 (977.28, 3199.00) 2218.00 (1014.00, 3702.00) * 1813.50 (895.27, 3106.00) −2.395 0.017 3.818 0.026
 TNF-α, pg/mL 10.10 (4.66, 20.19) 14.81 (7.49, 46.77) 34.02 (8.64, 63.80) * 12.77 (7.00, 27.48) −2.264 0.024 6.008 0.004
  1. CCL chemokine (C-C motif) ligand, EA eosinophilic asthma, GINA Global Initiative for Asthma, IL interleukin, NA neutrophilic asthma, NEA non-eosinophilic asthma, PGA paucigranulocytic asthma
  2. *Compared with eosinophilic asthma, P < 0.05. #Compared with neutrophilic asthma, P < 0.05. t121/z1 and P1: Compared between EA and NEA. F222/z2 and P2: Compared across EA, NA and PGA