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Table 1 Study I: Characteristics of asthma patients grouped by EA and NEA

From: Chitinase-like protein YKL-40 correlates with inflammatory phenotypes, anti-asthma responsiveness and future exacerbations

Characteristics EA NEA t121/z1 P 1 F222/z2 P 2
Total NA PGA
n 44 71 40 31     
Age, mean ± SD, yr 41.6 ± 12.5 48.6 ± 15.3 49.4 ± 15.6* 47.6 ± 15.2 −2.557 0.012 3.389 0.037
Gender, male n (%) 15 (34.1) 33 (46.5) 20 (50.0) 13 (41.9) 1.714 0.190 2.181 0.336
BMI, median (Q1, Q3), kg/m2 22.78 ± 4.11 24.04 ± 4.36 24.11 ± 4.65 23.96 ± 4.02 −1.539 0.127 1.185 0.310
Smoking, Current/Ex/Non 5/5/34 9/16/46 6/9/25 3/7/21 2.504 0.286 2.979 0.561
Smoking, pack-years 0.00 (0.00,0.00) 0.00 (0.00,7.70) 0.00 (0.00,7.70) 0.00 (0.00,8.80) 3.390 0.184 3.390 0.184
Age of asthma onset, mean ± SD, yr 33.73 ± 14.74 34.38 ± 19.18 32.65 ± 18.95 36.61 ± 19.54 −0.193 0.847 0.460 0.633
Asthma duration, median (Q1, Q3), yr 3.00 (1.25, 13.50) 7.00 (3.00, 23.00) 13.00 (4.50, 28.75)* 6.00 (2.00, 15.00) −2.763 0.006 10.187 0.006
ICS dose, BDP equivalent, median (Q1, Q3), μg/d 400 (400, 400) 400 (400, 400) 400 (400, 400) 400 (400, 800) −0.261 0.794 2.698 0.260
GINA steps 1–5, (n) 0/0/40/4/0 0/0/65/6/0 0/0/39/1/0 0/0/26/5 0.014 0.906 4.013 0.144
Medications, n (%)
 ICS/LABA 44 (100.0) 70 (98.6) 40 (100.0) 30 (96.8) 0.625 1.000 2.291 0.270
 LTRA 40 (90.9) 62 (87.3) 34 (85.0) 28 (90.3) 0.348 0.774 0.838 0.753
 Theophyline 7 (15.9) 13 (18.3) 7 (17.5) 6 (19.4) 0.109 0.741 0.151 0.952
 SABA 2 (4.5) 1 (1.4) 1 (2.5) 1 (3.2) 0.625 1.000 0.498 1.000
Spirometry, mean ± SD
 FEV1, L 2.27 ± 0.86 2.23 ± 0.93 2.12 ± 0.85 2.31 ± 0.99 0.233 0.816 0.261 0.771
 FVC, L 3.24 ± 0.96 3.18 ± 0.88 3.15 ± 0.84 3.21 ± 0.95 0.333 0.740 0.095 0.910
 FEV1, % predicted 73.51 ± 19.60 75.37 ± 20.46 72.76 ± 21.79 78.65 ± 18.47 −0.478 0.634 0.856 0.428
 FVC, % predicted 88.02 ± 13.92 90.80 ± 14.27 89.69 ± 15.31 92.19 ± 12.96 −1.021 0.309 0.788 0.457
 FEV1/FVC, % 69.40 ± 14.10 68.08 ± 15.26 66.20 ± 15.88 70.46 ± 14.36 0.460 0.647 0.823 0.442
ACQ scores, median (Q1, Q3) 1.0 (0.17, 1.63) 0.5 (0.0, 1.33) 0.5 (0.0, 1.33) 0.5 (0.0, 1.00) 2.259 0.109 2.259 0.109
AQLQ scores, mean ± SD 5.75 ± 0.80 5.99 ± 0.64 5.94 ± 0.64 6.07 ± 0.64 −1.765 0.080 1.835 0.164
FENO, median (Q1, Q3), ppb 53.0 (37.0, 80.0) 21.0 (15.0,32.0) 21.0 (15.0,33.0)* 21.5 (14.5, 30.25)* 5.444 < 0.001 6.544 0.002
IgE, median (Q1, Q3), IU/mL 258.3 (170.6, 537.5) 73.07 (28.66, 271.17) 108.6 (29.4, 403.2) 58.7 (27.5, 215.0)* 3.891 < 0.001 8.593 < 0.001
  1. ACQ asthma control questionnaire, AQLQ asthma quality of life questionnaire, BDP beclomethasone equivalents, BMI body mass index, FENO fractional exhaled nitric oxide, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC forced vital capacity, GINA Global Initiative for Asthma, ICS inhaled corticosteroid, ICS/LABA inhaled corticosteroid with long-acting beta-agonist, LTRA leukotriene receptor antagonist, SABA short-acting beta-agonist, SD standard deviation, Q quartile, EA eosinophilic asthma, NEA non-eosinophilic asthma
  2. *Compared with eosinophilic-asthma, P < 0.05. t121/z1 and P1: Compared between EA and NEA. F222/z2 and P2: Compared across EA, NA and PGA