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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics

From: Change in inhaled corticosteroid treatment and COPD exacerbations: an analysis of real-world data from the KOLD/KOCOSS cohorts

  Total (n = 1144) ICS User (n = 478) ICS nonuser (n = 560) P-value
Age 68.1 ± 7.9 68.2 ± 7.9 68.2 ± 7.9 0.26
Male 1057(92.4) 439(91.8) 520(92.9) 0.13
Smoking status     0.80
 Current smoker 348(30.4) 147(30.8) 168(30)  
 Ex-smoker 700(61.2) 295(61.7) 340(60.7)  
 Non-smokera 80(7.0) 31(6.5) 45(8.0)  
 Pack-years 42.5 ± 25.1 43.2 ± 25.3 41.3 ± 24.3 0.26
BMI 23.4 ± 10.3 23.0 ± 3.4 23.0 ± 14.4 0.78
SGRQ 28.6 ± 17.0 33.4 ± 18.7 25.9 ± 15.5 < 0.01
CAT 14.2 ± 7.9 16.2 ± 7.9 12.9 ± 7.5 < 0.01
mMRC 1.4 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 0.9 1.2 ± 0.9 < 0.01
FVC measured, L 3.21 ± 0.82 3.03 ± 0.79 3.30 ± 0.79 < 0.01
Post-BD FEV1, L 1.67 ± 0.58 1.49 ± 0.54 1.75 ± 0.55 < 0.01
Post-BD FEV1, % predicted 61.37 ± 19.2 55.86 ± 19.12 63.38 ± 16.90 < 0.01
Post-BD FEV1/FVC ratio 50.88 ± 12.07 47.91 ± 12.25 52.3 ± 11.39 < 0.01
Bronchodilator response     0.003
 None 968(84.8) 392(82) 486(87.3)  
 BDR > 12% and 200 ml (FEV1) 144(12.6) 66(13.8) 65(11.7)  
 BDR > 15% and 400 ml (FEV1) (Spanish ACO) 29(2.5) 20(4.2) 6(1.1)  
DLco, % predicted 75.36 ± 30.32 73.92 ± 23.99 75.52 ± 36.12 0.45
Asthma 382(33.4) 205(42.9) 166(29.6) < 0.001
Serum eosinophils cells/μlb 179(102–302) 179(108-328) 178(97–280) 0.16
Eosinophils > 300 cells/μl n (%) 214(18.7) 99(20.7) 95(17.0) 0.038
Exacerbation frequency, events/person-year 0.44 ± 1.61 0.60 ± 1.65 0.33 ± 1.64 < 0.01
 0 909(81.2) 354(75.2) 470(85.0) < 0.001
 1 115(10.3) 57(12.1) 51(9.2)  
  ≥ 2 96(8.6) 60(12.7) 32(5.8)  
GOLD group     < 0.01
 A 293(25.6) 76(15.9) 179(32.0)  
 B 680(59.4) 309(64.6) 322(57.5)  
 C 26(2.3) 8(1.7) 15(2.7)  
 D 115(10.1) 77(16.1) 36(6.4)  
  1. Continuous data are presented as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range). Categorical variables as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. ACO asthma and COPD overlap, BD bronchodilator, BDR bronchodilator response, BMI body mass index, CAT COPD assessment test, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC forced vital capacity (FVC), ICS inhaled corticosteroid, mMRC modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, SGRQ St. George’s respiratory questionnaire
  2. aAmong non-smokers, 61 patients had history of pulmonary disease; 40 (65.6%), asthma; 34 (55.7%), pulmonary tuberculosis; 18 (29.5%), measles; 2 (3%), pertussis; and 15 (24.5%) had pneumonia
  3. bn = 853