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Table 3 Demographical and clinical features of all subjects in three lipid clusters

From: Inflammatory responses relate to distinct bronchoalveolar lavage lipidome in community-acquired pneumonia patients: a pilot study

  LClus1
(n = 6)
LClus2
(n = 74)
LClus3
(n = 40)
p-value
Cluster composition
 CAP patients, n (%) 6 (100%) 33 (44.6%) 13 (32.5%) 0.005a,b
 SCAP patients, n (%) 6 (100%) 14 (18.9%) 1 (2.5%) < 0.0005a,b,c
Demographics
 Age (years) 55.17 ± 16.13 53.49 ± 16.88 52.77 ± 16.78 0.935
 Gender, n, (% male) 4 (66.7%) 35 (47.3%) 14 (35.0%) 0.243
 Ever smokers, n (%) 1 (16.7%) 6 (8.1%) 3 (7.5%) 0.600
 Current smokers, n (%) 1 (16.7%) 12 (16.2%) 3 (7.5%) 0.390
Underlying Diseases
 Diabetes Mellitus, n (%) 2 (33.3%) 12 (16.2%) 5 (12.5%) 0.376
 Hypertension, n (%) 1 (16.7%) 25 (33.8%) 11 (27.5%) 0.661
 Hyperlipidemia, n (%) 0 13 (17.6%) 6 (15.0%) 0.692
 Coronary Heart Disease, n (%) 2 (33.3%) 9 (12.2%) 4 (10.0%) 0.281
Laboratory Findings
 Peripheral blood related
  BUN (mmol/L) 4.4 (1 - 27) 4.4 (1 - 25) 4.4 ± 1.5 0.323
  Cr (μmol/L) 86.5 (30 - 448) 60 (30 - 237) 61.9 ± 18.4 0.345
  ALT (U/L) 24.5 (12.0 - 77.5) 25.5 (13.3 - 44.5) 28.0 (18.0 - 41.0) 0.958
  AST (U/L) 30.5 (14.8 - 248.5) 25 (18.0 - 32.0) 28.0 (21.0 - 43.0) 0.422
  CK (U/L) 41.5 (19.0 - 540.0) 58.5 (43.3 - 94.8) 84 (48.0 - 116.0) 0.765
  ALB (g/L) 25.4 ± 5.2 35.3 ± 6.7 35.8 ± 5.5 0.006a,b
  Glucose (mmol/L) 9.4 ± 4.5 5.1 (4.7 - 6.2) 4.8 (4.5 - 5.7) 0.086
  TC (mmol/L) 2.8 ± 1.0 3.8 (3.7 - 4.7) 4.8 ± 1.3 < 0.0005a,b,c
  TG (mmol/L) 1.0 (0.7 - 2.8) 1.2 (0.9 – 1.6) 1.8 ± 1.0 0.166
  WBC (× 109/L) 11.3 (6.3 - 17.0) 6.1 (5.1 - 8.4) 6.7 ± 2.1 0.241
  Neutrophils (× 109/L) 8.9 ± 4.7 4.0 (3.1 - 6.0) 4.5 ± 1.7 0.105
  Lymphocytes (× 109/L) 1.0 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.6 1.5 ± 0.9 0.08
  NLR 11.5 ± 9.7 2.9 (2.2 - 5.3) 3.9 ± 2.6 0.092
  BALF related
  Total cell counts (× 106 cells) 0.48 (0.18 – 0.74) 0.2 (0.16 -0.29 ) 0.2 (0.14 - 0.25) 0.182
  PMN percentages (%) 57.5 (28.3 – 70.5) 2 (1 - 19.3) 1.5 (0 - 4.0) < 0.0005a,b,c
  Macrophage percentages (%) 23.7 ± 20.4 54.7 ± 28.2 63.9 ± 24.0 0.006a,b
  Lymphocyte percentages (%) 14.5 (9.8 – 38.0) 20 (9.0 – 37.0) 24 (13.0 – 48.0) 0.195
  Eosinophil percentages (%) 0 (0 - 1) 0 (0 - 1) 0 (0 - 0.5) 0.979
  Albumen concentration (g/L) 4.01 (0.87 – 6.05) 0.35 (0.17 – 1.16) 0.08 (0.06 – 0.22) < 0.0005a,b,c
 Inflammatory markersd
  PCT (μg/L) 17.9 ± 26.0 0.17 (0.05 - 0.37) 0.17 (0.11 - 0.21) 0.008a,b
  CRP (mg/L) 83.7 ± 65.3 43.82 (13.8 - 117.0) 43.82 (11.7 - 88.4) 0.611
  ESR (mm/h) 21 (18.3 - 41) 50 (23.5 - 16.5) 30.9 ± 17.6 0.209
 Medication history
  Recent corticosteroid usagee 1 (16.7%) 5 (15.6%) 0 0.335
  Recent antibiotic usagee 6 (100%) 31 (96.9%) 12 (92.3%) 0.611
  Quinolones at bronchoscopy 4 (66.7%) 21 (65.6%) 6 (46.2%) 0.484
  Macrolides at bronchoscopy 1 (16.7%) 3 (9.4%) 4 (30.8%) 0.206
  β-lactams at bronchoscopy 1 (16.7%) 16 (50.0%) 6 (46.2%) 0.419
  Carbapenems at bronchoscopy 4 (66.7%) 6 (18.8%) 0 0.005a,b
  Vancomycin /linezolid at bronchoscopy 2 (33.3%) 2 (6.3%) 0 0.073
 Detected pathogen
  Bacteria 2 (33.3%) 3 (9.1%) 0 0.262
  Atypical 1 (16.7%) 10 (30.3%) 3 (23.1%) 0.737
  Virus 2 (33.3%) 11 (33.3%) 4 (30.8%) 0.828
  Fungus 0 3 (9.1%) 1 (7.7%) 0.836
  Unknown 2 12 7  
 Complications & Outcome
  Hypoxemia 6 (100%) 13 (39.4%) 3 (23.1%) 0.005a,b
  IPPV 3 (50%) 5 (15.2%) 0 0.022b
  AKI 2 (33.3%) 2 (6.1%) 0 0.07
  30-day mortality 1 (16.7%) 5 (15.2%) 0 0.333
  LOS (days) 25.0 ± 22.3 13.4 ± 6.5 10.5 ± 3.4 0.092
  1. Data are reported as n (%) for categorical data, mean (±SD) for parametrically distributed data, or median (interquartile range) for nonparametrically distributed data. Statistically significant differences in variables amongst three groups are calculated using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Turkey HSD test or Kruskal-Wallis H test for continuous data; and Fisher’s exact test with a Bonferroni correction for categorical data. a statistically significance exists between LClus1 and LClus2; b statistically significance exists between LClus1 and LClus3; c statistically significance exists between LClus2 and LClus3; d Sample size is different than above (namely CAP patients only): LClus1, n = 6, LClus2, n = 33, LClus3, n = 13; e Recent usage is defined as use of antibiotics or corticosteroids < 2 weeks before admission
  2. Abbreviations: BUN blood urea nitrogen, Cr creatinine, ALT alanine transaminase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, CK creatine kinase, ALB albumin, TC total cholesterol, TG total triglyceride, WBC white blood cell, NLR neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, BALF bronchoalveolar lavage, PMN polymorphonuclear leukocyte, PCT procalcitonin, CRP C-reactive protein, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, IPPV invasive positive pressure ventilation, AKI acute kidney injury, LOS length of hospital stay