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Table 2 Percentage risk reduction (95% CI) for a first moderate/severe exacerbation

From: Impact of prior and concurrent medication on exacerbation risk with long-acting bronchodilators in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a post hoc analysis

  UMEC/VI vs PBO UMEC vs PBO VI vs PBO UMEC/VI vs UMEC UMEC/VI vs VI
Patient group/subgroup
 ITT population (N = 3021) 58 (40, 71)
p< 0.001
44 (22, 60)
p< 0.001
39 (15, 56)
p = 0.003
24 (−9, 48)
p = 0.136
31 (2, 52)
p = 0.041
Patient subgroups
 Maintenance-naïve (n = 984) 62 (15, 83)
p = 0.018
22 (−55, 61)
p = 0.475
4 (−82, 49)
p = 0.904
51 (−8, 77)
p = 0.076
60 (16, 81)
p = 0.016
 On maintenance (n = 2037) 56 (35, 71)
p< 0.001
50 (27, 66)
p< 0.001
48 (24, 65)
p< 0.001
12 (−33, 42)
p = 0.540
16 (−27, 45)
p = 0.408
 ICS-free (n = 1543) 62 (30, 80)
p = 0.002
41 (−3, 66)
p = 0.063
15 (−41, 49)
p = 0.520
36 (−20, 66)
p = 0.166
55 (19, 75)
p = 0.008
 ICS-treated (n = 1478) 55 (30, 71)
p< 0.001
46 (19, 65)
p = 0.003
51 (25, 68)
p = 0.001
15 (−33, 46)
p = 0.470
7 (−48, 42)
p = 0.753
 Low rescue use (n = 1488) 71 (43, 85)
p< 0.001
51 (12, 72)
p = 0.018
32 (−16, 61)
p = 0.153
41 (−18, 70)
p = 0.135
57 (17, 78)
p = 0.012
 High rescue use (n = 1490) 49 (22, 67)
p = 0.002
43 (13, 62)
p = 0.009
45 (15, 64)
p = 0.006
12 (−38, 44)
p = 0.580
9 (−44, 42)
p = 0.699
  1. Risk of a first moderate/severe exacerbation was assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model for all medication subgroups separately, with covariates for study, treatment, smoking status at screening and center group. Bold values indicate statistical significance (p < 0.05)
  2. Low rescue use: < 3.6 puffs/day; high rescue use: ≥ 3.6 puffs/day
  3. CI confidence interval, ICS inhaled corticosteroid, ITT intent-to-treat, LS least squares, PBO placebo, UMEC umeclidinium, VI vilanterol