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Table 4 Multivariable association of QoL and clinical characteristics with any hospitalizations and hospitalizations due to exacerbations in follow-up

From: The clinical course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and its association to quality of life over time: longitudinal data from the INSIGHTS-IPF registry

  SGRQ EQ-5D VAS UCSD-SOBQ WHO-5
beta 95% CI p-value beta 95% CI p-value beta 95% CI p-value beta 95% CI p-value
Any hospitalisation 3.95 0.35; 7.56 0.032 − 0.53 −3.70; 2.64 0.743 8.41 2.46; 14.37 0.006 −0.56 − 1.60; 0.48 0.292
Age −0.04 − 0.26; 0.17 0.702 − 0.21 − 0.39; − 0.02 0.026 0.26 − 0.08; 0.61 0.129 − 0.05 − 0.11; 0.02 0.141
Number of comorbidities
 0 0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00   
 1 −1.61 −7.37; 4.15 0.584 −0.40 −5.40; 4.60 0.875 0.31 −8.64; 9.26 0.946 0.29 −1.25; 1.83 0.714
 2 1.82 −3.91; 7.56 0.533 −3.01 −8.19; 2.17 0.255 5.47 −3.72; 14.66 0.243 0.20 −1.36; 1.76 0.801
 3 3.36 −2.91; 9.62 0.293 −4.07 −9.51; 1.38 0.143 7.11 −2.70; 16.93 0.155 −0.96 −2.63; 0.71 0.259
 4+ 11.42 4.99; 17.85 0.001 −10.18 − 16.28; −4.07 0.001 22.96 11.27; 34.65 < 0.001 −2.64 −5.02; −0.27 0.029
Change in FVC % predicted
 Stable/increase 0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00   
 Decrease by 0 to 10% 3.70 −0.10; 7.51 0.057 −2.93 −6.17; 0.32 0.077 4.60 −1.67; 10.87 0.151 −0.51 −1.62; 0.61 0.375
 Decrease by > 10% 8.08 2.23; 13.93 0.007 −6.11 −11.14; − 1.08 0.017 8.91 −0.23; 18.05 0.056 −0.97 −2.59; 0.66 0.242
Overall physician’s judgement of clinical course of IPF
 Stable disease 0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00   
 Slow progression 7.15 4.88; 9.42 < 0.001 −7.24 − 10.05; −4.44 < 0.001 10.65 5.96; 15.35 < 0.001 −1.62 −2.34; − 0.89 < 0.001
 Rapid progression 22.68 16.83; 28.52 < 0.001 − 26.37 −32.73; − 20.01 < 0.001 33.57 24.66; 42.48 < 0.001 −6.35 −8.31; −4.40 < 0.001
 No judgement possible 3.02 0.33; 5.70 0.027 −2.15 −5.16; 0.87 0.163 1.70 −2.96; 6.35 0.475 −1.25 −2.11; −0.40 0.004
Hospitalisation by exacerbation 5.35 0.64; 10.07 0.026 −1.56 −5.78; 2.65 0.468 10.89 2.72; 19.05 0.009 −0.78 −2.32; 0.76 0.320
Age 0.04 −0.24; 0.31 0.791 −0.37 − 0.59; − 0.15 0.001 0.40 − 0.02; 0.82 0.062 − 0.04 −0.12; 0.04 0.383
Number of comorbidities
 0 0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00   
 1 −0.33 −6.99; 6.32 0.922 −1.35 −7.22; 4.51 0.651 1.41 −8.79; 11.61 0.786 0.23 −1.58; 2.04 0.804
 2 2.93 −3.86; 9.72 0.397 −2.43 −8.49; 3.64 0.433 6.77 −4.36; 17.89 0.233 −0.09 −2.05; 1.88 0.930
 3 3.52 −3.89; 10.93 0.352 −1.79 −8.17; 4.60 0.583 7.09 −5.08; 19.27 0.253 −0.94 −3.15; 1.26 0.403
 4+ 13.15 5.95; 20.36 < 0.001 −8.90 −15.99; − 1.82 0.014 21.07 8.29; 33.84 0.001 −2.60 −5.56; 0.36 0.085
Change in FVC % predicted
 Stable/increase 0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00   
 Decrease by 0 to 10% 4.08 −0.73; 8.88 0.096 −4.12 −8.39; 0.15 0.059 6.63 −1.24; 14.50 0.099 −0.75 −2.17; 0.67 0.300
 Decrease by > 10% 7.49 0.66; 14.32 0.032 −4.05 −10.00; 1.90 0.182 9.98 −0.91; 20.86 0.072 −1.04 −2.79; 0.72 0.247
Overall physician’s judgement of clinical course of IPF
 Stable disease 0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00   
 Slow progression 6.65 3.84; 9.46 < 0.001 −8.90 −12.49; −5.31 < 0.001 9.98 3.38; 16.58 0.003 −1.63 −2.55; −0.70 0.001
 Rapid progression 24.23 17.19; 31.26 < 0.001 −27.75 −36.15; −19.34 < 0.001 33.78 22.82; 44.75 < 0.001 −6.67 −9.06; −4.29 < 0.001
 No judgement possible 2.36 −0.77; 5.49 0.139 −1.16 −4.97; 2.66 0.552 −0.76 −6.46; 4.94 0.794 −0.98 −2.00; 0.03 0.058
  1. beta regression coefficient, CI confidence interval, EQ-5D VAS EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire, recorded as a visual analog scale, FVC forced vital capacity, IPF idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, QoL quality of life, SD standard deviation, SGRQ St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, USCD-SOBQ University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire, WHO-5 World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index