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Table 2 Associations of QoL with clinical parameters at baseline and change in clinical parameters in follow-up

From: The clinical course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and its association to quality of life over time: longitudinal data from the INSIGHTS-IPF registry

  SGRQ total EQ 5D VAS UCSD-SOBQ WHO-5
beta 95% CI p-value beta 95% CI p-value beta 95% CI p-value beta 95% CI p-value
Female sex 5.42 1.13; 9.71 0.013 −3.36 −6.90; 0.18 0.063 13.56 6.41; 20.72 < 0.001 − 1.47 −2.60; − 0.33 0.011
Age 0.00 −0.19; 0.20 0.963 −0.18 − 0.34; − 0.02 0.029 0.35 0.04; 0.66 0.026 −0.05 − 0.10; 0.00 0.074
Age at first symptom onset in years −0.10 − 0.28; 0.08 0.285 − 0.08 − 0.22; 0.07 0.323 0.17 − 0.11; 0.46 0.238 − 0.03 − 0.07; 0.02 0.299
Age at diagnosis in years −0.09 − 0.28; 0.09 0.320 − 0.08 − 0.23; 0.07 0.290 0.18 − 0.11; 0.48 0.227 − 0.02 − 0.07; 0.03 0.400
Duration since first symptoms in years 0.73 0.28; 1.18 0.002 −0.51 −0.89; − 0.13 0.008 0.71 − 0.04; 1.46 0.062 − 0.09 − 0.21; 0.03 0.139
Disease duration in months 1.36 0.70; 2.02 < 0.001 −1.10 − 1.65; −0.55 < 0.001 1.70 0.64; 2.77 0.002 −0.25 −0.43; − 0.08 0.005
  < 3 months 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
 3 to < 6 months −2.63 −9.30; 4.04 0.440 1.30 −4.28; 6.89 0.647 −4.48 −16.06; 7.11 0.449 0.54 −1.27; 2.34 0.560
 More than 6 months 6.54 2.53; 10.55 0.001 −5.10 −8.43; − 1.76 0.003 8.43 1.74; 15.12 0.014 −0.68 −1.76; 0.40 0.215
Number of comorbidities
 None 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
 1 3.55 −1.37; 8.47 0.157 −5.19 −9.23; − 1.16 0.012 9.93 2.05; 17.80 0.013 −0.86 −2.16; 0.44 0.195
 2 4.49 −0.63; 9.61 0.086 −6.46 −10.66; −2.26 0.003 10.11 1.88; 18.34 0.016 −1.02 −2.37; 0.33 0.140
 3 5.87 −0.04; 11.78 0.051 −7.75 − 12.62; −2.88 0.002 15.37 5.74; 24.99 0.002 −1.98 −3.55; −0.41 0.013
 4+ 17.18 10.14; 24.23 < 0.001 −14.99 −20.88; −9.11 < 0.001 33.06 20.77; 45.35 < 0.001 −4.35 −6.24; −2.46 < 0.001
NHYA
 I 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
 II 16.07 9.16; 22.98 < 0.001 −12.61 −19.06; −6.15 < 0.001 22.28 10.78; 33.77 < 0.001 −1.86 −3.92; 0.21 0.078
 III 26.95 19.97; 33.93 < 0.001 −18.00 −24.49; − 11.50 < 0.001 38.29 26.65; 49.92 < 0.001 −3.82 −5.90; − 1.75 < 0.001
 IV 33.28 16.44; 50.13 < 0.001 −27.35 −41.90; − 12.81 < 0.001 51.63 24.63; 78.64 < 0.001 −8.69 −13.43; − 3.95 < 0.001
6MWD (m) − 0.01 − 0.01; 0.00 0.217 0.00 0.00; 0.01 0.313 −0.01 − 0.03; 0.00 0.109 0.00 0.00; 0.00 0.423
FEV1% predicted −0.55 −0.62; − 0.49 < 0.001 0.43 0.37; 0.49 < 0.001 − 0.80 − 0.91; − 0.70 < 0.001 0.09 0.07; 0.11 < 0.001
FVC % predicted − 0.60 − 0.66; − 0.53 < 0.001 0.46 0.39; 0.53 < 0.001 −0.89 −1.00; − 0.78 < 0.001 0.11 0.09; 0.13 < 0.001
DLCO % predicted −0.26 − 0.31; − 0.20 < 0.001 0.26 0.20; 0.33 < 0.001 − 0.35 − 0.44; − 0.25 < 0.001 0.04 0.02; 0.06 < 0.001
Change in FVC % predicted between baseline and 1-year follow-up
 Stable/increase 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
 Decrease by 0 to 10% 3.71 −0.55; 7.97 0.087 −2.90 −6.58; 0.77 0.122 4.08 −3.13; 11.29 0.267 −0.51 −1.67; 0.65 0.393
 Decrease by > 10% 9.08 2.48; 15.67 0.007 −8.07 −13.81; −2.33 0.006 11.24 0.32; 22.16 0.044 −1.30 −3.09; 0.50 0.156
Change in DLCO % predicted between baseline and 1-year follow-up
 Stable/increase 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
 Decrease by 0 to 10% 5.46 0.85; 10.08 0.020 −0.41 −4.43; 3.60 0.841 10.46 2.85; 18.07 0.007 −0.37 −1.62; 0.88 0.561
 Decrease by > 10% 7.79 0.85; 14.73 0.028 −3.93 −9.96; 2.10 0.201 10.74 −0.73; 22.21 0.067 −0.40 −2.28; 1.47 0.673
Change in FVC % predicted between baseline and last follow-up
 Stable/increase 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
 Decrease by 0 to 10% 3.44 −1.04; 7.92 0.133 −3.30 −7.08; 0.48 0.087 3.18 −4.45; 10.81 0.414 −0.22 −1.44; 0.99 0.719
 Decrease by > 10% 7.47 2.11; 12.83 0.006 −6.50 −11.02; − 1.99 0.005 8.80 −0.15; 17.75 0.054 −0.87 −2.32; 0.59 0.242
Change in DLCO % predicted between baseline and last follow-up
 Stable/increase 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
 Decrease by 0 to 10% 4.41 −0.52; 9.35 0.080 −1.42 −5.59; 2.75 0.505 11.09 2.94; 19.23 0.008 −0.44 −1.77; 0.89 0.518
 Decrease by > 10% 5.10 −0.51; 10.72 0.075 −2.47 −7.18; 2.25 0.305 8.24 −0.88; 17.36 0.077 −0.30 −1.80; 1.21 0.701
GAP index 3.29 1.95; 4.64 < 0.001 −3.41 −4.50; −2.33 < 0.001 6.47 4.36; 8.58 < 0.001 −0.50 − 0.86; − 0.14 0.007
 Stage I 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
 Stage II 5.69 0.74; 10.63 0.024 −7.04 −11.00; −3.08 < 0.001 16.51 8.69; 24.34 < 0.001 −0.92 −2.25; 0.41 0.177
 Stage III 12.93 7.42; 18.45 < 0.001 −13.51 − 17.96; −9.07 < 0.001 25.78 17.08; 34.47 < 0.001 − 1.79 −3.27; −0.30 0.019
Overall physician’s judgement of clinical course of IPF
 Stable disease 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
 Slow progression 7.79 3.51; 12.06 < 0.001 −3.52 −7.14; 0.10 0.056 11.13 4.04; 18.21 0.002 −1.08 −2.23; 0.08 0.068
 Rapid progression 13.16 6.22; 20.11 < 0.001 −9.52 −15.39; −3.65 0.001 19.89 8.32; 31.47 0.001 −2.72 −4.61; −0.83 0.005
 No judgement possible −0.39 −4.93; 4.15 0.865 1.33 −2.43; 5.09 0.487 1.72 −5.72; 9.15 0.651 −0.01 −1.23; 1.20 0.986
  1. 6MWD six-minute walk distance; beta, regression coefficient, CI confidence interval, DLCO diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, EQ-5D VAS EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire, recorded as a visual analog scale, FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC forced vital capacity, GAP index Gender, Age, Physiology index, IPF idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, NYHA New York Heart Association functional class, QoL quality of life, SD standard deviation, SGRQ St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, USCD-SOBQ University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire, WHO-5 World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index