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Table 2 Within- and between-group comparisons of the changes from baseline to endpoint measures for BMI, physical activity and some dietary intakes in the saffron and placebo groups of asthmatic patients

From: An evaluation of the effects of saffron supplementation on the asthma clinical symptoms and asthma severity in patients with mild and moderate persistent allergic asthma: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial

Variables Saffron (N = 38) Placebo(N = 38) P-value*
Value   Value P-value¥
BMI (kg/m2)
 Baseline 26.84 (25.46–27.23)   26.84 (25.05–27.39)   
 8 weeks (endpoint) 26.68(25.81–27.18)   26.84 (24.79–27.44) 0.37 0.28
 Changes 0.00 (−0.35) to (0.00)   0.00 (0.00–0.32)   
Physical activity (MET-min/week)
 Baseline 676.50 (231–2704)   693 (231–3446.50)   
 8 weeks (endpoint) 660.00 (231.00–2220.50) 0.56 693.00 (379.50–3876.00) 0.02 0.28
 Changes 0.00 (0.00–90.75)   0.00 (0.00–173.250)   
Energy intake (kilocalories)
 Baseline 1858.97 ± 213.16   1856.47 ± 99.66   
 8 weeks (endpoint) 1865.36 ± 208.48 0.46 1877.44 ± 112.05 0.02 0.23
 Changes 32.00 (−41.00) to (46.25)   31.00 (−30.00) to (62.00)   
Percent of calories from carbohydrate (%)
 Baseline 54.11 ± 6.63   57.15 ± 5.19   
 8 weeks (endpoint) 54.65 ± 6.65 0.81 56.61 ± 6.36 0.16 0.20
 Changes 0.24 (−1.30) to (1.87)   0.21 (−2.21) to (0.77)   
Percent of calories from protein (%)
 Baseline 11.69 ± 1.54   11.95 ± 1.51   
 8 weeks (endpoint) 11.81 ± 1.46   11.81 ± 1.33   0.03
 Changes 0.13 (−0.24) to (0.47) 0.16 − 0.07 (− 0.47) to (0.12) 0.11  
Percent of calories from fat (%)
 Baseline 33.80 ± 4.36   35.73 ± 6.03   
 8 weeks (endpoint) 33.79 ± 4.35   36.47 ± 6.51   0.40
 Changes 0.23 (−1.97) to (2.02) 0.87 0.14 (−0.69) to (1.83) 0.21  
  1. BMI Body Mass Index. *p-value for comparing the changes of variables between the groups. Mann-whitney test was used. ¥p-value for comparing baseline, with endpoint values within each group. Wilcoxon and Paired t test were used. Values are expressed as mean ± SD for parametric and median (25th, 75th percentiles) for non-parametric data