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Table 1 The basic characteristics of the study population

From: Association of plasma soluble CD14 level with asthma severity in adults: a case control study in China

Variables Control (n = 881) All asthmatics (n = 910) P value Intermittent asthmatics (n = 537) Persistent asthmatics (n = 373) P trend
   Mild (n = 246) Moderate (n = 96) Severe (n = 31)  
Age (years, Mean ± SD) 46.63 ± 14.40 45.64 ± 14.11 0.1424 46.91 ± 14.36 43.76 ± 14.05 44.31 ± 12.31 42.71 ± 13.77 0.0040
Female (yes, %) 522 (59.25) 543 (59.67) 0.8565 320 (59.59) 148 (60.16) 60 (62.50) 15 (48.39) 0.7487
Occupational hazards exposure (yes, %) 306 (34.73) 337 (37.03) 0.3105 205 (38.18) 82 (33.33) 38 (39.58) 12 (38.71) 0.8230
Family history of asthma (yes, %) 5 (0.57) 100 (10.99) < 0.0001 61 (11.36) 19 (7.72) 15 (15.63) 5 (16.13) 0.4609
Exercise (yes, %) 417 (47.33) 252 (27.69) < 0.0001 176 (32.77) 59 (23.98) 11 (11.46) 6 (19.35) < 0.0001
Keeping pets (yes, %) 132 (14.98) 153 (16.81) 0.2898 86 (16.01) 39 (15.85) 14 (14.58) 14 (45.16) 0.0313
Planting flowers (yes, %) 178 (20.20) 192 (21.10) 0.6401 123 (22.91) 53 (21.54) 10 (10.42) 6 (19.35) 0.0353
Smoking status (N, %)   < 0.0001   0.1750
 No smoking 647 (73.44) 718 (78.90)   427 (79.52) 193 (78.46) 77 (80.21) 21 (67.74)  
 Former smoking 22 (2.50) 74 (8.13) 46 (8.57) 20 (8.13) 6 (6.25) 2 (6.45)
 Current smoking 212 (24.06) 118 (12.97) 64 (11.92) 33 (13.41) 13 (13.54) 8 (25.81)
Passive smoking (yes, %) 302 (34.28) 217 (23.85) < 0.0001 143 (26.63) 49 (19.92) 23 (23.96) 2 (6.45) 0.5931
Drinking (N, %)   < 0.0001   0.6185
 No drinking 671 (76.16) 767 (84.29)   457 (85.10) 206 (83.74) 78 (81.25) 26 (83.87)  
 Former drinking 18 (2.04) 49 (5.38) 26 (4.84) 12 (4.88) 9 (9.38) 2 (6.45)
 Current drinking 192 (21.79) 94 (10.33)   54 (10.06) 28 (11.38) 9 (9.38) 3 (9.68)  
Sleeping quality (N, %)   < 0.0001   0.0015
 Good 538 (61.07) 250 (27.47)   172 (32.03) 59 (23.98) 13 (13.54) 6 (19.35)  
 Impaired 278 (31.56) 442 (48.57) 243 (45.25) 127 (51.63) 55 (57.29) 17 (54.84)
 Poor 65 (7.38) 218 (23.96) 122 (22.72) 60 (24.39) 28 (29.17) 8 (25.81)
BMI (kg/m2, Mean ± SD) 23.22 ± 3.36 23.03 ± 3.48 0.2261 23.14 ± 3.54 23.02 ± 3.45 22.86 ± 3.39 21.63 ± 2.56 0.0523
Lung function parameters
 FVC (L, Mean ± SD) 3.11 ± 0.88 2.91 ± 1.03 < 0.0001 2.84 ± 1.01 3.00 ± 1.02 3.07 ± 1.05 2.98 ± 1.20 0.0197
 FEV1 (L, Mean ± SD) 2.61 ± 0.69 2.11 ± 0.84 < 0.0001 2.09 ± 0.82 2.20 ± 0.84 2.04 ± 0.85 1.94 ± 1.02 0.7273
 % PRED FVC, % (Mean ± SD) 102.77 ± 23.75 88.65 ± 23.12 < 0.0001 87.77 ± 22.87 90.39 ± 22.65 90.60 ± 23.48 83.67 ± 29.19 0.5332
 % PRED FEV1, % (Mean ± SD) 98.05 ± 24.68 77.82 ± 26.19 < 0.0001 77.86 ± 25.63 80.12 ± 24.73 75.42 ± 30.28 66.22 ± 30.69 0.1292
 FEV1/FVC (%) 84.73 ± 8.18 72.52 ± 15.18 < 0.0001 73.88 ± 15.02 73.08 ± 13.39 66.26 ± 16.48 63.79 ± 19.68 < 0.0001
 PEF 5.52 ± 2.13 4.63 ± 2.08 < 0.0001 4.56 ± 2.08 4.79 ± 2.09 4.70 ± 2.03 4.27 ± 2.09 0.6808
sCD14 (ng/mL, Median, 25th~75th) 708.21 (499.91, 967.66) 500.47 (334.59, 744.65) < 0.0001 555.99 (364.86, 791.24) 421.02 (296.82, 671.69) 460.53 (315.78, 677.69) 398.56 (258.49, 534.96) < 0.0001